The Sound and the Fury

Although this new form of historicism centers history as the subject of research, it differs from the “old” in its understanding of history. While traditional historicism regards history as “universal,” new historicism New Historicism And Renaissance Culture considers it to be “cultural. ” According to Jeffrey N. Cox and Larry J. Reynolds, “new” historicism can be differentiated from “old” historicism “by its lack of faith in ‘objectivity’ and ‘permanence’ and its stress not upon the direct recreation of the past, but rather the process by which the past is constructed or invented” (1993: 4).

This new outlook on history also brings about a new outlook on literature and literary criticism. Traditional literary historicism holds that the proper aim of literary criticism is to attempt to reconstruct the past objectively, whereas new historicism suggests hat history is only knowable in the same sense literature is?through subjective interpretation: our understanding of the past is always conducted by our present consciousnesses.

Louis Monitors, in his “Professing the Renaissance,” lays out that as critics we are historically bound and we may only reconstruct the histories through the filter of our consciousness: [O]our analyses and our understandings necessarily proceed from our own historically, socially and institutionally shaped vantage points; that the histories we reconstruct are the textual constructs of critics who are, ourselves, historical subjects (1989: 23).

For Monitors, contemporary historicism must recognize that “not only the poet but also ten curtly exists In nelsons” Ana Tanat ten texts are “Inscriptions AT nelsons” Ana furthermore that “our comprehension, representation, interpretation of the texts of the past always proceeds by a mixture of estrangement and appropriation. ” (1989: 24). Monitors suggests that this kind of critical practice constitutes a continuous dialogue between a “poetics” and a “politics” of culture (1989: 24).

In Monotone’s opinion, the complete recovery of meanings in a diverse historical outlook is noninsured necessary since older historical criticism is “illusory,” in that it attempts to “recover meanings that are in any final or absolute sense authentic, correct, and complete,” because scholarship constantly “constructs and delimits” the objects of study and the scholar is “historically positioned visit-a-visit that object:” (1989: 24) [T]he practice of a new historical criticism invites rhetorical strategies by which to foreground the constitutive acts of textually that traditional modes of literary history efface or misrecognition.

It also necessitates efforts to historicist the present as well as he past, and to historicist the dialectic between them?those Verve Dugan reciprocal historical pressures by which the past has shaped the present and the present reshapes the past (1989: 24-25). The new historicist outlook on literary criticism is primarily against literary formalism that excludes all considerations external to the “text,” and evaluates it in isolation. The preliminary concern of new historicism is to refigure the relationship between texts and the cultural system in which they were produced.

In terms of new historicism, a literary text can only be evaluated in its social, historical, and political contexts. Therefore, new historicism renounces the formalist conception of literature as an autonomous aesthetic order that transcends the needs and interests of a society. A literary text cannot be considered apart from the society that produced it: a literary text is another form of social significance which is produced by the society and in return is active in reshaping the culture of that society (Monitors, 1989: 24).

Thus, new historicism explains how texts not only represent culturally constructed patterns, but also reproduce cultural constructions: Contrary to the New Critical insistence on the autonomy of literary texts and on the importance of reading such texts “intrinsically,” new historicist believe that it makes no sense to separate literary texts from the social context around them because such texts are the product of complex social “exchanges” or “negotiations” (Booker, 1996: 138).

As a matter of fact, intrinsic reading of a literary text is unattainable not only because literature is performed with close association with society and culture, but also the reader and the critic bring their extrinsic knowledge, assumptions, and preoccupations while they are reading the texts, since “reading is itself a culturally situated exchange” (Booker, 1996: 138). New historicism is also critical of deconstruction, which also has an statistical method. Nevertheless, it has borrowed certain aspects from postindustrial like the doctrine of plurality?that a literary work may nave Deterrent connotations to Deterrent people .

I nee tonsures Tanat are most close to New Historicism are Marxism, Feminism, and Cultural Materialism in their being skeptical of the formalist view of literature as an autonomous realm of discourse. David Forgers, in his “Marxist Literary Theories,” puts forward that regardless of the diversity of Marxist theories, there is one assumption that is 1 final, which is “that literature can only be properly understood within a larger framework of social reality” (1986: 167). This social reality is “not an indistinct background out of which literature emerges or into which it blends” (1986: 167).

The “definite shape” of social reality is “found in history, which Marxist see as a series of struggles between antagonistic social classes and the types of economic production they engage in” (1986: 167). As Gallagher points out in her “Marxism and New Historicism,” one major distinction between new historicism and Marxist criticism is hat “[t]he new historicist, unlike the Marxist, is under no nominal compulsion to achieve consistency. She may even insist that historical curiosity can develop independently of political concerns” (1989: 46).

Another point that separates new historicism from Marxism and as well as traditional historicism is that new historicist try to reconstruct the ideology through diverse agents. According to Catherine Gallagher, the literary atmosphere of the sass challenged the traditional order of importance while evaluating the significance of the agents: The traditionally important economic and political agents and events have been spliced or supplemented by people and phenomena that once seemed wholly insignificant, indeed outside of history: women, criminals, the insane, sexual practices and discourses, fairs, festivals, plays of all kinds.

Just as the sixties, the effort in the eighties has been to question and destabilize the distinction between sign systems and things, the representation and the represented, history and text (1989: 43). 2. A New Outlook on Literary History Literature, for new historicism, is a social and cultural creation constructed by more than one consciousness, and it cannot be minimizes to a product of a single mind. Therefore, the best way of analysis is achieved through the lens of the culture that produced it.

Literature is a specific vision of history and not a distinct category of human activity. Man himself is a social construct; there is no such thing as a universal human nature that surpasses history: history is a series of “ruptures” between ages and man. As a consequence, the critic is trapped in his own historicity. No one can rise above their own cultural formations, their own ideological upbringing in order to understand the past in its own terms. Therefore, it is impossible for a modern reader to appreciate a literary work as its contemporaries experienced it.

As a result, the best approach to literary criticism is to try to 82 Verve reconstruct the “ideology” of its culture by taking the text as its basis and by exploring diverse areas of cultural factors. The initial endeavor of new historicism is to relocate the literary text among nonliterary “discursive practices” of an age by making use of documents like chronicles, legal reports, pamphlets and by analyzing other forms of art like painting, sculpture, music, etc. Nevertheless, history is not viewed as the cause or source of literature.

The relationship between history and literature is seen as a dialectic: the literary text is interpreted as product and producer, end and source of history. Stephen Greenbelts explains the new historicist effort to establish relations between different discursive practices as an attempt “to develop terms to describe the ways in which material?here official documents, private papers, newspaper clippings, and so forth?is transferred from one discursive sphere to another and becomes aesthetic property” (1982: 3).

Therefore, if the circumstances of a literary text are impossible to recuperate, the concern of the literary critic should be to recover the ideology that gave birth to the text, and which the text in turn helped to spread within the culture. Catherine Gallagher explains new historicism as “reading literary and non-literary texts as constituents of historical discourses that are both inside and outside of texts” (1989: 37).

Gallagher moreover puts forward that the practitioners of new historicism “generally posit no hierarchy of cause and effect as they trace the connections among texts, discourses, rower, and the constitution of a subjectivity” (1989: 37). Louis Monitors asserts that the focus of this new vein of literary criticism is an attempt to refigure “the socio- cultural field within which canonical renaissance literary and dramatic works were originally produced” and to resituated them “not only in relationship to other genres and modes of discourse but also in relationship to contemporaneous social institutions and non-discursive practices” (1989: 17).

Monitors asserts that the new orientation to history can be characterized as a “reciprocal concern with the strictly of texts and the textually of history” (1989: 24). With “the historicity of texts” Monitors suggests “the cultural specificity, the social embodiment, of all modes of writing,” referring both to the critically evaluated texts and to “the texts in which we study them” (1989: 24).

With “the textually of history” Monitors suggests that we cannot have “access to a full and authentic past,” and we cannot have access to “a lived material existence, unmediated by the surviving textual traces of the society in question” (1989: 20). Despite the bulky theory written on new historicist eroticism, Stephen Greenbelts asserts that he attempts to “situate [new historicism] as a practice?a practice rather than a doctrine” since he finds it to be “no doctrine at all” (1989: 1).

Catherine Gallagher points out that the critics of new historicism find its politics to be “obnoxious” (1989: 37). Arm Vessel, who has compile a ten cement articles AT new malcontents Walt Lovers voles In Nils Nine New Historicism manages, however, to bring together certain “key assumptions” that constantly appear in new historicist theory . Vessel also points out that new historicist developed a method that describes “culture in action” (1989: x’). . New Historicism and Renaissance Culture: Through a Larger Picture Greenback’s criticism is mostly centered on the drama of early modern period.

In his analyses, he tries to capture the relationship between culture and theater. Clifford Geezer, a precursor of New Historicism, asserts that “[t]here is no such thing as a human nature independent of culture” (1973: 51). Geezer does not see culture as “complexes of concrete behavior patterns?customers, usages, traditions, habit clusters” (1973: 44) but as “a set of control mechanisms?plans, recipes, rules, instructions … ?for the governing of behavior” (1973: 49).

As Greenbelts asserts “[s]elf-fashioning is in effect the Renaissance version of these control mechanisms, the cultural system of meaning that creates specific individuals by governing the passage from abstract potential to concrete historical embodiment” (1980: 3). According to Greenbelts literature “functions within this system in three interlocking ways: as a manifestation of these concrete behaviors of its particular author, as itself the expression of the codes by which behavior is shaped, and as a reflection upon those codes” (1980: 4). Thus, the author, social factors, and the text all help us understand the larger stricture.

New historicist criticism is concerned with these three functions and all three must be the concern of literary criticism since, if interpretation limits itself to the behavior of the author, it becomes literary biography (in either a conventionally historical or psychoanalytic mode) and risks losing a sense of the larger networks of meaning in which both the author and his works 1 The “key assumptions Arm Vessel points out are as follows: that every expressive act is embedded in a network of material practices; that every act of unmasking, critique, and opposition uses the lolls it condemns and risks falling prey to the practice it exposes; that literary and non-literary “texts” circulate inseparably; that no discourse, imaginative or archival, gives access to unchanging truths nor expresses inalterable human nature; that a critical method and a language adequate to describe culture under capitalism participate in the economy they describe (1989: x’). Verve Dugan participate.

If alternatively, literature is viewed exclusively as the expression of social rules and instructions, it risks being absorbed entirely into an ideological superstructure Finally, if literature is seen only as a detached reflection pond the prevailing behavioral codes, a view from a safe distance, we drastically diminish our grasp of art’s concrete functions in relation to individuals and to institutions, both of which shrink into an obligatory “historical background” that adds little to our understanding. We drift back toward a conception of art as addressed to a timeless, cultures, universal human essence or, alternatively as a self-regarding, autonomous, closed system?in either case, art as opposed to social life (Greenbelts, 1980: 4).

Instead , Greenland alms to Introduce a “more cultural or anthropological crystals” 2 1980: 4). Greenback’s view of anthropological criticism grasps culture and its observers “drawn to a metaphorical grasp of reality. ” 3 And such interpretation must be self-conscious and understand literature as “a part of the system of signs that constitute a given culture:” Social actions are themselves always embedded in systems of public signification, always grasped, even by their makers, in acts of interpretation, while the words that constitute the works of literature… Are by their very nature the manifest assurance of a similar embeddings (1980: 5).

Literature is another attempt to evaluate early modern culture since it is an implicit emissary of public signification: Language, like other sign systems, is a collective construction, our interpretive task must be to grasp more sensitively the consequences of this fact by investigating both the social presence to the world of the literary text and the social presence of the word in the literary text (1980: 5). Still, Greenbelts is aware that literary interpretation cannot fully reconstruct the culture of the 16th century, nor can the critic reenter the world 2 The “anthropological criticism” of Greenbelts is in tune with Faculty’s Archeology of

Knowledge, where he asserts that the understanding of a discourse is based on dispersion rather than unity. We should abandon preexisting notions of unity in order to understand the formation and development of discourses. 3 Metaphorical reality later becomes a crucial factor of Greenback’s theories as he puts forward in his Shakespearean Negotiations. 85 of a distant past leaving behind one’s own consciousness. This may seem like a defect in “articulate criticism”4 but such defects can be compensated for by constantly returning to literary and non-literary texts of the time which may reveal the material necessities and social pressures that men and women daily confronted” (1980: 5).

These literary and non-literary texts, which may help our understanding of the distant past, must be viewed not because “we may see through them the underlying and prior historical principles but rather that we may interpret the interplay of their symbolic structures with those perceivable in the careers of their authors and in the larger social world as constituting a single, complex process of selfishness and, through this interpretation, come closer to understanding how dietary and social identities were formed in this culture” (1980: 6). 4. Fashioning of the Self and the Society in Early Modern Period Stephen Greenbelts in his Renaissance Self-Fashioning, suggests that during the Renaissance, the fashioning of identity, both in formation and expression, is primarily a product of social institutions. That is the reason why the “fashioning” of identity was less autonomous since in Renaissance “… Family, state, and religious institutions impose a rigid and Tar-reaching Oligopolies upon tenet immune class students” (Greenland, 1 Therefore, identity fashioning is artificial and imposed during early modern period.

Although, there has been a long-time interest in character identities as Saucer’s persona show us, Greenbelts suggests that especially in the 16th century this interest in the fashioning of human identity had become more “self-conscious” and understood as “a manipulative, artful process” (Greenbelts, 1980: 2). This sense of fashioning is not seen in Saucer’s poetry despite the interest in particular characters. For Greenbelts, 16* century poetry like Spender’s Faerie Queen or Amaretto presents a much deeper awareness of self-fashioning. 1980: 2) Greenbelts evaluates four 16th century authors, Edmund Spencer, Thomas Wyatt, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare, who are all mobile characters, who moved toward diverse paths than what normally would be expected from them. All these authors knew about fashioning since they had to adapt themselves to different identities, as they did not follow the expected pattern.

Being sons of middle class families, they did not inherit their personalities; they had to reinvent them (1980: 8). Greenbelts adds that there is also a “direction enacted by the works of literature in relation to society: shift from absorption by community, religious faith, or diplomacy toward the establishment of literary creation as a profession in its own right” (1980: 8). 4 “What Greenbelts means by articulate criticism is accurate and proper literary criticism. Verve Dugan in his Introduction to Representing the English Renaissance, Greenbelts further explains his attempt in evaluating the Renaissance texts in a historical contingency.

He argues that any form of art is performed in a cultural environment and producing literature is not a private matter but a social act with its “contests” and “negotiations. Imagination is created in a social environment and is a product of public condition: These contests and negotiations are all social; they do not occur in a private chamber of the artist’s imagination, for that imagination, in its materials and resources and aspirations is already a social construct. This does not mean that art can be reduced to social structures such as class, status or kinship, any more than it can simply be collapsed into the material basis for its production and consumption.

A culture’s did verse social constructions are at Once interconnected and differentiated, o that if, for example, a culturally dominant conception of social inequality shapes artistic representations, those representations have at the same time the power to constrain, shape, al term, and even resist the conception of social inequality (1988: viii). Therefore, social construction is twofold: Social structures create public imagination and at the same time, art, which is a social construct itself, helps alter and shape the social pattern. History and literature are thus interrelated and are “agents” of meaning: For history is not simply discovered in the precincts surrounding the dietary text or the performance or the image; it is found in the artworks themselves, as needling contralto, snapping Torch, Tooter AT meaning, censor, community AT patronage and reception.

And the work of art is not the passive surface on which this historical experience leaves its stamp but one of the creative agents in the fashioning and re-fashioning of this experience (1988: viii). In his essay “Murdering Peasants,” Greenbelts puts forward that history and art are not constituent but their production requires numerous elements; and the outcome of social and political values are introduced to us through the text: The production and consumption of such works are not unitary… ; they always involve a multiplicity of interests, however well organized, for the crucial reason that art is social and hence New Historicism And Renaissance Culture presumes more than one consciousness.

And in response to the art of the past, we inevitably register, whether we wish or not, the shifts of value and interest that are produced in the struggles of social and political life (1988: 14). 87 Greenbelts also asserts that historical forces play a great role on generic codes. During the Stuart and Tudor times there was unrest, class hostility, inflation, employment, together with religious and political disturbances: Instead of depicting the ordinary operation of the law, functioning to defend property, English artists most often narrate events at once more menacing and more socially prestigious, event colored by feudal fantasies in which the sixteenth-century gentry dressed their craving for honor.

Thus instead of the assizes and a hempen rope, we have tales of mass rebellion and knightly victories (1988: 15). Therefore, artists preferred to narrate events that belonged to the feudal society, instead of capitalist legislations. Greenback’s later criticism, which appears in Shakespearean Negotiations, defines New Historicism as a “turn away from the formal, decentralized analysis,” and suggests an “embeddings of cultural objects in the contingencies of history” (1990: 271). New Historicism is not inclined to use the word “man” as a general term to refer to all human beings who are not thought as “making concrete choices in given circumstances at particular times” (1990: 271).

The interest is towards the “particular, contingent cases” when “the selves fashioned and citing according to the generative rules and conflicts of a given culture,” since reality is not in the “abstract universal” (Greenbelts, 1990: 272). Through the expectations of the individual’s class, gender, religion, race, and national identity, history is shaped and reshaped. All the elements in a society are an agent from minimalism to marginality: Indeed, if there is any inevitability in the new historicist’s vision of history it is this insistence on agency, for even inaction or extreme marginality is understood to possess meaning and therefore to imply intention.

Every form of behavior, in this view, is a strategy: taking up arms or taking flight is a significant social action, but so is staying put, minding one’s business, turning one’s face to the wall: Agency is virtually inescapable (1990: 271-72). Such agency could be multilayered, diversely motivated, and subversive: Actions that appear to be single are disclosed as multiple; the apparently isolated power of the individual genius turns out to be bound up with collective, social energy; a gesture of dissent may be an element in a larger legitimating process, while an attempt to stabilize order of things may turn out to subvert it (1990: 272). Political patterns may change, at times abruptly, and one form of transformation may be the cause of chain reactions creating progressive circumstances (1990: 272).

Greenbelts points out that works of art, even though they may have been produced by the creative intelligence and private obsessions of individuals, are actually products of collective negotiation and exchange. This “negotiation and exchange” pay homage to Faculty’s “regularities” or rulers, both avoiding “the kind of thought for which events, texts, or social formations represent larger, more ‘real’ formations” (During, 1992: 200). . “The Desire to Speak with the Dead:” Social Energy in Early Modern England Stephen Greenbelts opens the first essay in his Shakespearean Negotiations with his “desire to speak with the dead” (1990: 1). He asserts that the dead left “textual traces of themselves” and these traces “make themselves heard in the voices of the living” (1990: 1).

Some of these texts are less resonant than the others, but the literature simulates “in the formal, self-conscious miming of life” and therefore is more functional than other textual traces left by the dead because “simulations are undertaken in full awareness of the absence of life they contrive to represent, and hence they may skillfully anticipate and compensate for the vanishing of the actual life that has empowered them” (1990: 1). To the question of how much of that life got into texts, Greenbelts offers the idea that especially Shakespearean plays had “precipitated out of a sublime confrontation between a total artist and a totaling society” (1990: 2).

The total artist, Greenbelts explains, is he who is complete at the moment of creation through training, resourcefulness, and talent (1990: 2). Totaling society is that which “posits an occult network linking all human, natural, 5 According to Factual, external conditions govern the rules of formation of discourse. These “discursive regularities” are the objects, forms, concepts, and themes of discourse, which are conditions for existence. 89. And cosmic powers” and that which “claims on behalf of its ruling elite a privileged place in this network” (1990: 2). One should, on one hand, “pull back from a notion of artistic completeness” and “totaling power,” and on the other, strive for complete literary understanding (1990: 3). This does not happen by taking the “text itself as