Retention of Knowledge from the Previous School Year

Jennifer Hoverer’s Angela Stiletto Introduction After considering many topics of interest to both of us and our fields of study, we came to the conclusion of conducting our literature review on the summer learning loss experienced by students during the three-month school hiatus. We find this topic interesting due to the fact that we both spend at least a month, if not more, reviewing knowledge learned from the previous school year.

This also includes getting the students back Into a routine. We both think that the extended time away from school negatively affects the students’ knowledge from the previous school year. The purpose of this literature review Is to find evidence that supports the notion that the extended break from school during the summer contributes to learning loss for students. Step 1: Framing Questions to Guide the Literature Search The first step of conducting and writing your own literature review is to frame questions that guide your literature search.

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When beginning your research, the task can seem daunting. Focusing your search will provide a framework for your investigation. You can do this by coming up with a set of questions to answer specifically related to your study. As you progress in the research process, you may need to modify some of these initial questions. To begin our literature search, the first thing we started with was framing questions. The first question we asked was does extended time away from school affect students retention of knowledge during the school year.

Another question we have regarding this research is what can teachers/schools do during the school year to better help students retain information during the summer. A third question we would like to address is if there are any programs available to students during the summer to help bridge the gap. Step 2: Consulting with Experts The second step of conducting and writing your own literature review is to consult with experts in the field of which you are studying. When seeking an expert’s knowledge, It Is critical to make sure that your topic of research Is clearly defined, or has a clear purpose.

You can use this consultation as another way to focus and add expertise to your literature review. Getting In contact with experts can be achieved In multiple ways. Mom examples are using your personal contacts to reach members of The first expert we would consult with would be our respective co-workers at each of our school buildings. This would be to reaffirm our hypothesis that students need to spend the first month of school reviewing what should have been learned in the previous school year to move on to material that needs to be taught in the current grade.

We could also look into educational forums and Join a discussion and see what others’ opinions are on our topic. One such forum would be from the website www. Deseed. Org, which is a site for teachers to express opinions on hot topics in heir respective fields. Step 3: Using Bibliographic Indexes and Search Engines The third step of conducting and writing your own literature review is to use bibliographic indexes and search engines. A bibliographic index is a compilation of various publications on a specific topic, generally listed in alphabetical order by author or title.

Search engines, on the other hand, are a type of software used to look for information on a specific topic. The search is based on topics the user wants to look up. The steps to using each type of search differ along with the results. These hypes of searches will narrow your quest to find relevant information useful to your literature review. The search for materials began with a Google search (a search engine) of “summer learning loss”, and lead to finding various resources for our topic.

From one of the websites found in the initial search, they provided several articles on the topic and cited the ERIC database where they had originally retrieved the articles. From there, we continued to search the ERIC database (a bibliographic index) to find more evidence to support our essential questions. Step 4: Reading Secondary Sources The fourth step of conducting and writing your own literature review is to read and use secondary sources. A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources.

Types of secondary resources would be textbooks, magazine articles, encyclopedias, educational programs, and curriculum guides that have been reviewed in published works. Secondary sources are useful at the beginning stages of your literature review to view previous research on the topic. In the previous step, which was our initial Google search, we found several secondary sources that support our topic. One of these secondary sources found was www. Thinker’s. Com. This website was formed to bridge the gap between summer learning loss and the retention of information from the previous school year.

In fact, this website has developed a summer program where parents can order manuals to have their children practice skills over the summer. This website has links to the ERIC database as well to aid in supporting their belief that summer causes students to experience learning loss. Other secondary resources found were www. Summarizing. Org, www. Riff. Org, and articles from The Huffing Post and www. Retrorockets. Org. Step 5: Reading Primary Sources sources. A primary source is a document that was written by an individual during the time of the publication.

Examples of primary sources are original documents, creative works, and artifacts. Primary resources provide concrete evidence compared to second sources that only review the primary source. When searching for primary sources, first look through the abstract to decide if the information is relevant to the topic of the literature of research. It is also a good idea once you have narrowed down your research studies to start with the most recent studies. You can obtain primary sources by visiting a library, or carefully using a search engine to find a publication.

Researching these secondary sources lead us to find primary sources that support our topic as well. Some of the primary sources found on the ERIC database were Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Examine Summer Learning Loss (2013), America After PM Special Report on Summer: Missed Opportunities, Unmet Demand (2010), Multi-Track Year-Round Schooling as Cost Saving Reform: Not Just a Matter of Time (2013), Year-Round Learning: Linking School, After School, and Summer Learning o Support Student Success (201 1), and Slowing the Summer Slide (2012).

Some of the articles discuss the topic and have evidence to support the fact that learning loss does occur in students over the summer. Some of the articles suggest strategies for teachers and parents to use to help prevent learning loss over the summer. Step 6: Classifying Publications into Meaningful Categories The sixth step of conducting and writing your own literature review is classifying publications into meaningful categories. While collecting publications, grouping these together in categories helps to structure the literature review.

The categories need to frame your work to make it easier to read the chosen articles that are related to your topic. Eventually this will help create the literature review and make a structure to follow. As stated above, we found articles to support our hypothesis that learning loss does occur for students over extended breaks such as summer. This would be our first category to use to classify our publications to defend and support our hypothesis. After proving that our hypothesis is true, we can create another category.

This category will provide parents and teachers with options of research-based, best reactive strategies and programs available to help students better retain information learned in the previous school year. Step 7: Preparing a Report of a Literature Review The final step of conducting and writing your own literature review is preparing a report of the literature review. It is important to remember that while a good amount of time and effort go into preparing the literature review, it is intended to be brief.

The opening section, or introduction, should include key studies and trends in the research. Later, in the discussion section, these topics should be reviewed and related to what is already in the literature. With help in writing a literature review and to see how they are integrated into an article, articles in research Journals should be reviewed. Hypothesis and also why this topic was interesting enough for us to research further. We would also list any bibliographic indexes and search engines we used to begin conducting our research.

Next, in the findings section, we will organize our findings based first on using evidence proving our hypothesis and then organize the remaining articles to help prevent summer learning loss. Next, in the discussion section, we will state our personal interpretations and recommendations for the research given. Lastly, we will reference all of our sources used to conduct our research in PAP formatting-style. Writing the Literature Review There are four essential parts of a written literature review.

The four sections to include in this literature review would be an introductory section, a section on findings, a discussion section, and a reference section. The introductory section should include the essential question that was used to drive your literature review and why this topic was of interest to examine. This section should also include bibliographic indexes and search engines that you used, years covered in the review, and descriptors and keywords used to conduct research. Finally, if any particular troubles were met in conducting the literature review, these should be noted in this section as well.

The second section of the literature review is the section on your findings. When completing this section, it is first important to decide how you will organize your findings. Two suggestions for this would be to organize by the questions or hypotheses that guided your research, or to organize by the categories created to organize the Journals found in your research. Another organizational issue that will need addressed in this section is how to order your questions, hypotheses, and categories.

Then, within these presented questions, it will also need to be decided how to show important research that you found, including studies, theories, programs, methods, and opinions. One suggestion is to group Journals based on their similarities. That way, arguments of agreements and disagreements about a topic can be compared and contrasted more easily by the reader. Also, some publications ay need to be cited several times throughout this section because they may apply to several different questions and topics within your review.

The third section of the literature review is the discussion section. In this section, you are able to display to the reader your personal interpretation and recommendations for the research given. The section on findings, in contrast, must be written in a non-biased manner. However, this section allows you to reach your own determination based on what you have learned during your research. To reach this determination, you can ask yourself the question, “What did I learn from this view? Giving recommendations based on what you have learned from your research is important because the readers of the review are looking for your expert advice since you are the one who reviewed the literature and conducted the research. The fourth and final section of the literature review is the references section. This section should include all of the reference sources used throughout your research all sources are cited in the same way. When completing your references section, make sure to change all your sources to the same citation style, namely the citation style of the American Psychological Association (PAP).