It is human nature to prefer short cuts when there are guarantees that they come at no cost. Consequently man has always strives to device means of ensuring a reduction In the time spent carrying out most of his satellites. The library In conformity to this, has prided itself In devising procedures of accessing Information In as little time as possible. Walkout these procedures the world of documentation would have been chaotic.
They is a quartet of information retrieval processes called tallying, classification, indexing and abstracting. Lending and abstracting are concern of this paper Indexing Hedgerow, (1993) defined indexing as a language based system that describes the content of a work resulting in a list of subjects or headings called an index. The indexing process includes not only selecting terms to be indexed, but also qualifying these terms with subtleties where appropriate; and editing the index after a first draft is produced to Improve its cohesiveness, consistency, accuracy, and usefulness to the reader.
A few of the functions of Indexing Include: It Is the grouping together Information on topics scattered by the arrangements of the document, and organisms headings and their modifying subheadings Into Index entries. Directing users seeking Information under terms not chosen as Index headings, to headings that have been chosen using “see references. ” Suggesting to users of a topic to look up related topics also by means of “see also’ Arranging entries into systematic and helpful order. Identifying and locating potentially relevant information in the document or collection being indexed.
There are various kinds of indexes which are broadly vided into the following: Pre coordinate indexing is carried out where the combination of search terms is done by the indexer rather than by the searcher. The combination of terms is not made during the indexing of the document but during the search. Post-coordinate indexing systems are used in combination with Boolean logic where the search sets are formed and combined with the logic “and”. The rest include, author, subject, document, citation, cumulative, book, periodical and bibliographical indecencies.
The main features of indexing according to Meadow, (1967) s that it is exhaustive and specific, which has some degree of influence on two important measure of information retrieval, namely precision and recall. Abstracting O’Connor, (1996) defines abstracting as the reduction of each document to its essence, making a secondary document to stand in place of the original. The product of which are called an abstracts. The functions of include: They help readers decide if they should read an entire article. Readers would often rather rely on abstracts to decide quickly if an article is of any importance to them.
The tone of the abstract is often reflective of the main article, which also allows the reader decipher the complexity level of the document. They help readers and researchers remember key findings on a topic. People keep abstracts to remind them of the source because they also have bibliographic citations. They help readers understand a text by acting as pre-reading outline of key points. Using abstracts to get a summary makes reading the text easier and much more efficient. They are also helpful in indexing articles for quick recovery and cross referencing.
Cross preferring through abstracts opens up new areas of research that the readers might not have known about when they started their research. They allow supervisors to review technical work without becoming caught up in details. There are two main types of abstracts, which include: Descriptive abstracts, which outlines the topics covered in a piece of writing, so that the reader will have an option of choosing to, or not to read the entire document. Informative abstracts provide details about the substance of a writing because readers will sometimes read only the abstract.
Relationship between Indexing and Abstracting There is a symbiotic relationship between indexing and abstracting. While indexing facilitates the pointing out of areas of utility, abstracting provides secondary documents for the users perusal. Together they provide for the effective and efficient navigation through the chaotic and explosive universe of information. Alt is however important to understand, while designing indexing and abstracting systems, that their effectiveness depend on the objectives and goals needing to be served.
Saving the time of the user is a reverberation of library and information work. Indexing and abstracting epitomizes the time management aspect of information work. They are both systems of representation, where one serves as a compass (index) and the other as the clarifier, (abstract) serving as a guide for the decisions of whether to consult the primary source or not. Conclusion There are tech-saws scholars who after having been hooked on the way the Google search engine operates, think that more needs to be done in the area of visibility of resources, in indexing and abstracting.
The view is that even though indexing, educes search space and abstracting, evaluation time, the two systems need to be merged by libraries in one entry space like is done online. This will even make the accumulated records. Crisp, and Total, (2008) in support to the aforementioned, say that newer searching tools are being implemented that allow access to a wider range of information, like Google scholar. Google is a big player in the web search arena. Usage statistics show that Google-like searches could render indexing systems obsolete. N explanation to this, Fidel, (1986) says that search strategies online re changing user search behavior. Abstracts are being used for free text retrieval. Users are even bringing this attitude to the use of the library. Most editors are even insisting that concepts be included in abstracts to complement descriptor indexing.