There are a lot of fee cafes or club in most of the shopping mall in Singapore. Cataracts is the most popular choice among most of the coffee cafes. In Plaza Singapore, this Is located In town which Is suitable for anyone In any point of more for tourists to shop around and also for people going for their meals. The main customers at that timing are families, couples, and working professionals, whereby Saturday is always time for family to be spending together.
The issue that both Cataracts and Costa Coffee facing is the current cost of quality of long queuing time for ordering which will directly affect their whole Saturday programs. For Cataracts, every minute of the waiting time in ordering will affect the chance of losing the customer become high. Cataracts can satisfy its customer by maintaining an average waiting time to miss. It is required to list the process map to study the flow of operations of YOKE, in order to identify which process slow down the whole operation.
Everyone has a part in maintaining a smooth operation. Managers have the duty to review the processes quarterly. 3. MEASURE Measure in DYNAMIC process focuses on measuring the internal processes that is critically impact to quality, I. E. Critical to Quality. It is important to understand the interactions between the process and customer value. In the food and beverage business like YOKE, waiting time to take order is very critical to the customer, especially with the current fierce competitions from other rivals like Toast Box; Wang and many more.
Customers will Just walk away if they take too long to queue to take orders. Therefore, it is essential for YOKE to measure the current average waiting time of the customers before they place orders at the defined peak hours. This measurement required more numerical studies and data analysis to be able to focus n the measurement of current process validation and gathering root causes. With the defined problem, it is required to establish an accurate baseline to be able to achieve the target.
Therefore, a quantitative data must be collected; planned and analyzed. 3. 1 Sequential Sampling Due to practical reason, it is impossible to analyze the entire population; therefore sampling is the alternative to represent a portion of the population. Other advantages of sampling are lower cost and faster data collection. For this case, the project team has narrowed the target in obtaining the sample size of 50; with 5 intervals Saturdays; for specified period of 11,AMA to 12. Pm. The data is to be collected by observing the actual time waited.
This interval does not introduce a pattern that biases a specific group of customers; rather it is for the specified peak hours for the improvement to increase the service level. The sequential sampling that the project team adopted can be further explained in the below diagram. 3. 2 Check Sheets Check sheets are simple tools for data collection; nearly all kind of form may be used actual time is collected and the data is recorded and tabulated in a check sheet. This check sheet enable the project team to calculate the statistics of average awaiting time; the lowest waiting time and the longest waiting time.
Which are shown in mean; LLC and CUL respectively at the right bottom columns of check sheet. Way-Junk Parkway Parade Queue Time To Order (Time Recorded in Minutes) DATE SAMPLE I-Junk 8-Junk 15-junk 22-junk 29-junk 11 8 10 5 9 2 7 6 3 12 14 4 15 13 17 16 Mean SSL ALLS 3. 3 Control Chart: Control chart is used in this project as a tool to determine if the process is in a state of statistical control or is stable. With the control chart, the project team can determine whether the waiting time variation is consistent and in control or is unpredictably variable.
Statistical Variation is completely undesirable and is has to be eliminated. The actual observations are further plotting in a run chart. The results indicated that the customers’ waiting time are varies with most of the time exceeded the unacceptable range. This is clearly that the waiting time of customers is lack of consistency and with big variable. This is because the data is ‘hugging the upper and lower control limit’ rather than ‘hugging the mean’. Based on the control hart, it shows 3 points that goes beyond the upper control limit.
It is also further observed that there is a sharp drop in the queuing time right after those points that hit above the upper control limit which shows an attempt to try to recover and improve the long queuing time situation. 3. 4 Histogram Histogram is a basis statistical tool that shows the frequency or number of observations in graphic. Histogram provides a clear visual of set of data and enables the project team to easily determine the proportion of observations that fell outside the specification limits. The histogram below shows the actual queuing time ranges room at least 5 minutes to as long as 17 minutes.
But from the data collected, most of the customers had to wait for about 8 to 10 minutes on average, in the queue before it is their turn to order. Based on the wide variation of queuing time as shown on the histogram, it can be deduced that there is inconsistency in the time to serve each customer. 3. 5 survey Beside actual observations; the project team had also conducted a survey through a list of questionnaires to gather the feedback from the customers. Survey is very process could be designed to deliver; meet and exceed the customers’ satisfaction.
The project team only concentrated in the result of customers’ willingness of waiting time to orders; as the project is targeting to improve the average waiting time. It will be considered as the voice of customer. And the feedback result is 5 minutes in average. The sample of the survey form is listed in the Appendix 1 . 4. ANALYZE Analyze is the third phase of DYNAMIC methodology; its primarily focuses on identifying the root cause of the problem by trying to identify where is the process gap, why fault or deviation can occur (Evans and Lindsay 2011, p. 48). To begin with, analyses of histogram and control chart are being carried out. Data showing 13 minutes or more queuing time may probably be caused by the long queue during the lunch period or some customers requiring more time to decide what to order. The actual root cause of the problem will be further analyzed in the cause-and-effect analysis. In order to improve the average customer queuing time, a deeper understanding on the current process flow of Wasps operation is first carried out.
On the high-level operational process flow, there are basically four groups of operation. The details of the processes are explained in the following table. ‘As-l’s’ High-Level Detailed Process Map Cause-and-effect Analysis Project team use the cause-and-effect diagram to solve the problem of long queuing time, by identify the possible causes. There are altogether 5 possible causes that lead to customer long queuing time. The ‘Beverage Making, ‘Order Taking, ‘Cooking/ Toast’, ‘Staff and ‘Customer’ are all causes identified in the case.
Beverage Making Operation of beverage making of various drinks directly affected the queue time. The identified contributors include time to brew more coffee or tea, time to make different beverages, running of cups, having to prepare a lot of beverage for large order, not enough coffee or tea flask or making of wrong beverages. If the beverage maker requires more time to prepare beverages for customers, the longer the customer will have to wait to collect the beverage which may eventually hold up the other customers making orders.
Order Taking Order taking could be one of the causes; it refers to operation like taking customer’s having to re-enter an order that is entered wrongly, time to make more soft-boiled eggs, waiting for the beverage make to complete the order for the other customers and there is only one order taking counter. If the order taker cannot serve each customer fast enough, it may eventually hold up the rest of the customer in the IEEE. Cooking/Toast This does not contribute to the cause of long queuing time, because customers do not need to wait at the queue as table tag will be given and food will be served at the table.
Staff For this cause, it focuses on areas such as communication between staff, responsibilities of each staff and others. Some of the contributors of this cause identified include new staff that is unfamiliar with the operation, miscommunication between staffs, unclear responsibilities, shortage of staff during peak period and changing of shift during peak period. If staff is unclear of what they need to do or here is no proper communication between staffs, it can lead to longer queuing time.
Customer Customers themselves cause the long queue include customer making the wrong order and requires more time to change their order, encountering an indecisive customer who has yet to make up his/her mind of what to order. This cause may affect the queuing time because customer who cannot decide what to order or customer making the wrong order will eventually hold up the rest of the customers in the queue. Root Cause Analysis From the cause-and-effect diagram, it was identified that the bottle neck of the problem is beverage-making operation.
Subsequently, ‘5 Why technique was used to identify the source of the problem (Appendix 2). The conclusion was the coffee- maker is tasked with many tedious functions in making the beverage. This root cause is further confirmed from analyzing the detailed process map. With reference from the detailed process map of making coffee, the functions that slow down the process are: Brew coffee and/or tea when runs out; Refill cups Warm cups Blend coffee/tea Entertain customer request Improve is the fourth phase of the DYNAMIC methodology.
After having to identify the root cause of the problem, the next step is to generate ideas to improve the current recess. For improvement, we will begin first by generating and brainstorming different ideas that are improvement possibilities. Followed by evaluating and selecting the most appropriate improvement ideas and finally proposed an implementation plan to implement these ideas. 5. 1 Idea Generation/Brainstorming In order to improve the average customer queuing time from 1 Ominous to miss, the team has brainstorm with the following possible improvement ideas. 5. Evaluate and Selection After brainstorming different ideas to improve, thorough evaluation of each idea is being carried out to determine on the feasibility. After evaluating each idea, the following ideas are selected based on feasibility, cost of implementation and improvement success rate. In addition, the following ideas are also proposed to improve on other area of process that can aid in reducing the long queuing time. Proposed Changes to Process Maps Proposed Improved Order Taking Process Proposed Improved Beverage Making Process Implementation Plan Based on the proposed improvements, the following improvement plan is proposed.
The entire implementation plan will take around two and a half months to implement the improvement process with details as follow: . CONTROL improvements, to prevent the process reverting back to the ‘old way. Therefore, it is necessary to implement a development; documentation an on-going monitoring plan to institute the improvement through a modification system and structure. The process of coffee making of YOKE has been designed with limited on-going human intervention, and it should be considered the best improvement.
For YOKE; it is important to establish the new standards and procedures. A SOP is the outcome of arranging tasks systematically in the best way to utilize the people, equipment and materials effectively (Channels 2003). All procedures indicated must be simple and clear so everyone can understand it easily, remember, and apply (Baker 1999). The SOP (Appendix 3) of coffee making processes has to be clearly documented and easily access to the workers. Having only the SOP is not sufficient; an adequate training has to be given to the workers.
First of foremost, it is important to train the workers to work according to the SOP; and how to locate it when required. On top of that, the principal and the importance of the improvements need to be explained to the workers to ensure they align with the company in achieving the goal. Besides, every worker should be trained about every stage of the operation process of YOKE; about the duties of other team members and how their Job affects the others. This training is important to reinforce the idea that each Job is important and also to increase motivation and promoting teamwork.
The training should be extended to the use and interpretation of control charts. In order to ensure the improvements are in controlled; it is essential to implement Statistical Process Control. An electronic survey system is to be placed in front of the cashier; and customers are encouraged to participate in the survey by pushing the Dutton according to their perceived satisfactory level. And the result can be tabulated in control chart and Parent Diagram weekly. A root cause analysis is to be conducted should the actual waiting time exceeded the target.
This ownership of the process should be handed over to the workers to encourage participation and involvements of workers. A major survey should be conducted quarterly to ensure the system is in controlled. If the improvements are sustained, contributions of workers are recognized and workers are rewarded accordingly.