Wayne is a five and a half year old boy in kindergarten, who will turn six in July. He is the youngest child in his class; most of his peers already turned six during the school year. He is about average height for his age and thin, with brown hair and eyes. He has a happy temperament and positive disposition; he demonstrates secure attachment to his mother, alternating between playing with friends and returning to where she is sitting.
He is bilingual, speaking with his Brazilian mother in Portuguese and his school friends in English. At times he is quiet, observing and listening to the other children. He also takes his turn at leading the group’s play, running In front as the others follow. He is social and has solid friendships with several other children from his class. Wayne is at the playground in the yard at his school in Burlingame, California. The yard Is a large fenced area with blacktop for playing sports and running. In the southeast corner, there Is an area with playground equipment and the surface Is covered with recycled tires.
The playground has monkey bars, slides and other platforms. Several students stay to play after school. Today, approximately 50 students from kindergarten to second grade are playing In the yard. Wayne plays with two boys and a girl from his kindergarten class while the moms of the students sit nearby at a picnic table under a sun shade. Several other moms and nannies enjoy the sunny weather and allow their children to run and play before going home for the evening. STAGE A five and a half or six year old child is in the Early Childhood stage of development.
Children In this stage are developing their gross and fine motor skills as they play. They can be classified In Fraud’s phallic stage of psychosocial development, leading to awareness of sex and gender differences. They are between Erosion’s psychosocial guilt, children either feel adventurous and want to perform adult-like activities or feel guilty as they internalize the limits set by their parents. In industry versus inferiority, children either master new skills or feel inferior and unable to accomplish their wishes.
According to Piglet’s operational period of cognitive theory, language and imagination are developing and children are capable of symbolic and magical hinging but not logic. Their thinking is egocentric, always viewing the world from their own perspective and limiting the child’s thinking. In the theory of Weights, these children are considered apprentices in thinking because they learn to think and ask questions of mentors who guide their participation in social experiences and explorations.
Mentors who provide scaffolding offer temporary support as children advance into the zone of proximal development to attain skills they cannot perform independently. Children also learn through language, both in private language and social exchanges. They seek reasons for experiences by asking questions to learn more about human behavior. During early childhood, the brain is growing with the proliferation of dendrites and axons. Amelioration, or coating of axons with a fatty myelin substance, speeds the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons so it allows increased reaction time.
The corpus callous grows to connect the left and right sides of the brain to improve skills on both sides of the body. The preferential cortex matures and allows children to focus attention and be less impulsive. In the limbic system of the brain, the magical increases activity, registering both positive and negative emotions, and the hippopotamus processes memory. Together, the magical and hippopotamus facilitate learning. The hypothalamus, also part of the limbic system, produces hormones in response to the magical and hippopotamus.
Early childhood is a sensitive period for language learning, allowing children to become fluent as they master vocabulary, grammar and punctuation. Children, not feeling self-conscious about mistakes, practice language skills freely without being inhibited by grammatical specifics. Children also make great psychosocial strides during this time, learning how and hen to express emotions. They take initiative to try new experiences and develop selflessness. The culture and family influences encourage children to regulate emotions based on what is important in that context.
They demonstrate intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the person and may lead him to create imaginary friends; extrinsic motivation comes from a desire to have achievements rewarded from outside and can cause the expression of emotions to be controlled. Boys are more likely than girls to externalities emotions and express their feelings physically. Nurturing caregivers positively affect a child’s regulation of emotions and facilitate their growth into emotionally competent individuals.
Children opportunity to practice emotional regulation and social skills, especially when engaging peers. Peers challenge each other physically as they play. Boys, in particular, engage in a type of play called rough-and-tumble play in which they fight in a friendly manner while smiling. Stratification play involves acting out different roles, as if in theater. In this type of play, girls often act out domestic themes and boys act out good versus evil. Children become aware of sex and gender differences around age five and prefer same-sex playmates.
Early childhood is also an influential time for moral development. Children become more aware of others and develop empathy or antipathy. As a result of empathy, they can develop friendships and demonstrate charity towards others, or proboscis behavior. On the contrary, antipathy can result in antisocial behavior that causes intentional harm to others. Proboscis behavior and positive moral development is fostered by strong, affectionate bonds with parents that establish internalized standards in their children. Children are not yet logical and say more than they understand.
This stage likely correlates with Kohlrabies second stage of level I presentational moral reasoning, in which children are egocentric and are nice to others so others will be nice to them in return. COMPARISON In the short time spent observing Wayne, he exhibited many of the developmental characteristics typical of early childhood. Play, the exercise of both gross and fine motor skills, and practice in emotional regulation and social skills were present at every moment as Wayne interacted with his three friends. The friends challenged ACH other physically as they ran together and climbed up and down the slides.
Wayne practiced his fine motor skills as he carefully adjusted the string on his toy bat with his fingers. Wayne offers extrinsic motivation to a friend, telling him to “prove” his skills. Consistent with Erosion’s theory of imitative versus guilt, Wane’s psychosocial desire of adventure is present as he plays and explores freely. Yet he is also industrious; demonstrating that he is moving into the stage of industry versus inferiority. Wayne masters new skills as he cautiously Jumped off the side of the slide r repeatedly tried to catch an escaping bouncy ball.
Cognitively, Wayne showed development of language skills, imagination, and symbolic thinking. He is bilingual in English and Portuguese and converses socially in both friendships. In both contexts, he listens, asks questions and contributes to conversations. He engaged in multiple themes of imaginative play and role-playing. First, he used a toy bat as a prop, then pretended to be Wall-E, and then runs around the playground with his arms out like wings. His ability to think symbolically allows Wayne to conjure up these images in his mind without having them physically resent.
His imagination is very active, switching between various scenes and expressing the physical motions and sounds involved in being these images. All of these actions demonstrate that his brain is developing normally. The children also engage in role-playing a domestic theme in which his friend was the baby and Wayne was the dad. Here the boys stray from the text, which says that girls often act out domestic themes and boys act out good versus evil. In this situation, the girl in their peer group did not want to play out this domestic scene while the boys continued on in their roles for several minutes.
Further sex differences are seen in how the boys and girl interact; Even though the three boys and one girl play well together, the dynamic suggests that they would actually prefer same-sex playmates. The girl plays with them but is often seen playing off to the side or running behind the boys. The children are becoming distinctly aware of their sex differences and taking on unique gender roles as boys and girls, consistent with Fraud’s psychosocial phallic stage. It is clear that Wayne is learning to regulate emotions, evidence of the development of the preferential cortex and magical.
He is happy and smiling while engaging in rough-and-tumble play with a friend. But when the play gets rougher, his smile fades and he disengages from the other boy. Later, when the play gets more intense, Wayne gets hurt, begins to cry and seeks the comfort of his mother. His mom expresses concern and validates his feelings. Wayne externalities his feelings by crying and telling the other boy, “no pointing. ” When the friend comes to say goodbye, Wayne is still obviously upset but gives the friend a high-five.
This may demonstrate his presentational moral reasoning (Kohlrabies level l, stage two) in which children look out for themselves and expect others to be nice to them if they are nice. Along with emotional regulation, Wane’s moral development is evidenced by the four close friendships he has formed and the empathy he shows them. While playing out the domestic scene, Wayne gently pats the baby and gives him a massage after taking him to get booster shot. He also protects the baby when the baby says he is in danger, demonstrating proboscis behavior. Wayne has standards about certain behaviors that are not acceptable.
When one of the boys starts making gun actions, Wayne tells the friend he will “have to go to the principals office. ” Wayne believes violent activities are immoral and should not be involved in play. Overall, Wane’s behavior was very similar to the behavior expected during early childhood. The similarities seen between Wayne and typical early childhood behavior are likely contributed to the supportive environment in which he has developed, highlighted by the mentors of his caregivers. Physically, he is healthy, in part due to genetics and in part due to healthy habits of physical activity and diet established by his parents.
It is evident by the secure attachment observed between Wayne and his mother that she has provided affection and support; this nurturing allows Wayne to securely explore his world and master new skills. His parents surely have provided many opportunities for scaffolding, assisting Wane’s growth into the zone of proximal development. He expresses healthy emotions and is not embarrassed to cry in front of peers. This may be because he is encouraged to express his feelings at home. Furthermore, the Brazilian culture of his mother may influence and encourage external emotional expressions.
He and his mother exhibit a strong bond that fosters proboscis behavior and has led him to build positive friendships. These observations indicate that Wane’s parents are authoritative, guiding his development by setting limits while remaining flexible and listening to their son. From the relationship witnessed between Wayne and his mother, it can likely be inferred that his home environment is stable and their family holds a moderate- though socio-economic status. As a result, living without high levels of stress allows Wayne to develop emotionally and cognitively.
Wane’s mother and father likely have strong relationship and communication skills that have served have built a strong foundation from which Wane’s social skills are flourishing. His parents may guide and encourage him to explore and participate in social experiences. CONCLUSION Wayne has a strong foundation of cognitive, psychosocial, moral and physical development that will foster his growth into adolescence and adulthood. The only potential weakness observed was his inclination to turn towards the protection of his mother when hurt before communicating his feelings or boundaries to the other child.
The foundation for emotional regulation is evident, however, and will grow trotter with time and development. His strengths include his proboscis behavior and empathy that will enable him to build lasting friendships in the future. As a result of his securely attached relationship with his mother, he will build healthy relationships with friends and his community or support a cause that he feels is important. Furthermore, he exhibits both the ability to listen attentively to his friends and to lead them in play.
This combination will prepare him to be a strong leader who listens to the concerns of others then guides them through change, potentially in a management position. The moral standards that are already evident will direct Wayne towards a path that is ethical and protects him from moral corruption. As a bilingual and bacterial adult, he will be accepting of individual differences and hold an international worldview. The strong, holistic foundation that has been developed through infancy and early childhood has set the stage for Wayne to become a competent and conscientious adult.
APPENDIX: Observational Notes Wayne checks out of school with his teacher and brings his school bag to his mom He runs to the area where the picnic tables are and his mom gives him a black, lactic bat toy that she brought for him from home Wayne watches as his friends show the toys their moms brought for them His mom gives him a copilot bag of animal graham crackers and he quietly eats one; he takes his snack and play with his friends A friend brought a small bouncy ball and the three boys play with it Another child comes and knees him in the back of the leg; Wayne ignores it and runs away stands with his snack bag He says, “Want to see how high I can bounce? I can bounce it super high. ” They run around after the ball, trying to catch up with the ball, he drops to the ground to try to catch and it rolls past him. He eats a cracker Has a golf ball and says, “Now it’s your turn to throw. ” His friend throws it and says to Wayne, “hey, come back. Wayne comes back and throws the ball; friends gives instructions, if I catch it, I get a point; Wayne throws again Level says, “I’m tired of playing. ” Wayne walks away, eats a cracker Goes by mom and asks for water in Portuguese; Drinks water Wayne says to friend, “His name is red bird” (referring to an angry bird toy) Talks with friends about toys, “let me see. It’s squishy. ” Friend explains other toys; Wayne listens silently and drinks his water; rubs his nose then it will be a dinosaur person” Asks mom, “what else did you bring me? ” Mom shows a toy she brought for him Wayne says to other friend, “He doesn’t have any powers; he has hitting powers. He kicks the bench of the table, moves around as he stands and watches his friends He looks at his friend’s bag of toys He tells friend, “Prove it Louis. ” Friend’s toy drops and Wayne bends over to pick it up Says to friend, “Just do a move, right, Level? ‘ Then the three boys are talking about damage of Poke©moon. Conversation, W says things occasionally, mostly observes W watches as friend takes toys out of a bag… Sets head on hand as he observes, asks a question about the toy “he’s a crystal guy? ” Smiles at something friend says and swings his leg back and forth, leaning against picnic table, kneels on picnic bench, boys laugh and chatter. Now 4 boys are at end of one of the picnic tables, same table where moms sit chatting He says, Mimi can’t make it open. Friend answers, anemia you can” He goes to mom, looks in her purse for something; Mom opens bag without talking and hands him a black, plastic bat; He brings it to his friends and says, VAMPIRE… ” Friend takes it and plays with the stretchy string that is connected to the bat. Wayne says, “No, no, no… That’s not the way it’s supposed to go. ” He takes the bat back from friend and fixes the string. He says, “I’m serious Louis, don’t… I’m in a battle with Louis. ” He says, “They are going to battle. ” He hits his friend’s toy egg with his bat; then hits another friend in forehead with bat… The boys are smiling until George starts making gun motions.
Wayne says, uniform making guns; soon you’ll have to go to the principals office. ” The smiles stop. Wayne accidentally hits his friend’s toy and it falls to ground; Wayne picks it up He says, Vampire is going to battle. He moves the bat’s wings as if flying and says, Another friend makes a loud noise and Wayne pulls back a little. He fixes the string on the bat and says, “I’m going to battle Level. ” The friend hits bat and Wayne makes the bat fly up in the air. He says, “That almost didn’t do any damage. ” Level asks, “Want to play wall ball again? ” Wayne answers, “l want to play vampire. No guys can ever beat him. ” Wayne says to Louis, “Now look. ” He hangs the bat from stretchy string.
Wayne walks then runs to playground while hanging the bat from the stretchy string He says, “Louis, I have to think about it… He stands on a shorter picnic table then goes back to other picnic table where the moms sit. He shows a friend the bat and the friend asks about the string, “So this goes around wings? ” Wayne says wait a minute and adjusts the stretchy string. He says, “Now you have to do it like this” as he shows the friend instructions how to wrap stretchy string around bat’s feet. Friend says, “Let’s go and play. ” Wayne responds, “I’m coming” (with a little attitude) 3 friends walk back to the picnic tables and Wayne asks mom (in Portuguese) how to do something with the string. Mom fixes the string and gives the bat back to Wayne.