Management Skill

However, the reality is that there are various differences between individuals, between groups with different tasks and norms, the same problem will have a different understanding and treatment, so they produce inconsistent or incompatible. In other words, the conflict within the organization or group is an objective reality. Conflict means perceived divergence of interest, or a belief that the parties current aspirations cannot be achieved multitudinously (Capitol, 1999). According to Wall and Cloister (1995) conflict is a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.

Conflicts are including fundamentals of a persons interdependence, emotions, perception, and behaviors. Organization Conflict Conflict in the workplace is normal happening in most organizations. Conflict is unavoidable and it is surrounding us, not only organization, it appears between countries, society and so on. Workplace conflicts have been categorized into various types. Interpersonal Conflict Management refers to the communication between sender and receiver or behavioral problems it can be broadly defined as two kinds of conflict.

Incompatible interests in some of the substantive issues contains negative emotions, such as mistrust, fear, denial and anger incompatible behavior. Compliant in workplace such as inconsiderateness between employees, different style in decision making disagreement with the organization policies and restriction of output (Baron,1990, as cited in Ihram, 1992). According to McKenna and Richardson (1995), manager should have the effective conflict resolution skills. The important of the skills are the ability to deal with conflict management effectiveness of decision-making.

Moreover, the corporate strategy choices, the allocation of rights and the level of productivity have the most direct impact to the organization. The Sources of Organization Conflict First, in the process of conflict resolution may inspire positive change in the organization. In order to eliminate the conflict, people will seek a better ways for solutions. To seek ways to resolve the conflict, not only can lead to innovation and change, and may make changes easier for subordinates to accept, even for employees desire. Secondly, in the decision-making process intentionally stimulate conflict, can improve the effectiveness of decision-making.

During the decision making process, due to the power to control the situation, people are unwilling to consider more different alternative. As a result it may not give sufficient for programmatic decision-making caused by mistakes. In other hand, conflict also will cause negative consequences. First, the conflict may divert resources. Organizations resources are not mainly used to achieve the stated objectives, but consumed in conflict resolution the time and money are two important resources strutted to be often eliminate the conflict. Second, conflicts undermine employees mental health.

Exposure to opposing opinion, will result in hostile, tension and anxiety. Over time, the existence of conflict may make mutual support and trusts are difficult to establish and maintain the relationships between employees. Third, the requirement of internal competition conflicts triggered may adversely affect the efficiency of group. The Necessity of Organization Conflict According to Dietz and Stevenson (1986), conflict is natural it is a good and necessarily things for an organization. That conflict is good and necessary since conflict can inspire innovative thinking when handle correctly.

Escape the conflict in organizations may cause ineffective performance of organization team. The escape of conflict may come from the lack of trust between employees, fear to hurt someone feeling employees ideas bland by the organization culture and so on. In some time, the organization conflict is necessary to create new ideas and how effective the new ideas work is (Baron, 1991). Plans are come out from people, no matter how good you think about the plan, there might be some people have different view about the plan. Productive conflict can bring more powerful ideas or plans.

As results, it will lead to effective decision making and satisfaction of the employees due to their contribution was considered (Shaken and Volcanic, 1994). The constructive conflict is a healthy part of a relationship. Employers and employees have different opinions in how they work or how to improve the company’s affairs, wise employers will listen to the views of staff, and dedicated staff will respect their employers. Conflicts it is not only to increase the productive of the organization it also improve the employees satisfaction ( Detacher Marks, 2001). In fact, for any organization, the harmony is only relative, conflict is absolute.

Conflicts with one or more target competition, there are certain benefits if employees feel that there is an aspect of Job performance competitive mood, it may be inspired to seek among the best in the competition. In the certain period, the management is necessary to stimulate a certain level of conflict. Managers can adopt policies by stimulate of conflict when want to change the organization culture. Understanding of the views of employees through conflict and re-instill employees new organizational culture. Fundamental change can be bringing out by the conflicts.

Conflicts Just like a successful tool which able change the presented power structure, existing communication model in the organization and re-build the well-established attitude of the employees and employer. Moreover, the effectiveness of the organization and the team work is improves by conflicts. In order to create an innovative project, conflicts are the best primary stages to collect information and ideas. According to the research, when the task is associated with conflict it will advantageous to the organization due to the exchange experience and knowledge teens employees to accomplish the best performance Neon, 1995).

According to Fill (1994), conflict is a way to motivate the group learning. When there are certain levels of conflict in the organization, the employees are seen like to be force to enhance their awareness or ability in order to association in the organization projects. Conflict ever-present, everywhere harmony is only temporary, perhaps Just a wonderful imaginary state. Conflict can either destroy the harmony you can also cast a higher realm of harmony. Conflict Handling Styles Any conflicts are inevitable and there is a process.

There are five styles to resolving the conflict Compromise, Avoidance, Accommodation, Competition, and Collaboration (Thomas and Kalmia, 1974 and Ihram and Sonoma, 1979). Compiled using Ihram (1983, 369) and Thomas Kalmia (1974 in Abraham et al. (2005, 199)) Compromise (creation of neutral situation) is mutual concessions in the conflict in the process to achieve a protocol of the situation. Use of a compromise should carefully in a timely manner and not to prematurely adopt this approach (Dietz and Stevenson, 1986).

Prematurely will occurs problems such as, managers may not touch the real core of the problem cause of the lack of real understanding of the causes of conflict. In this situation the conflicts can not be solve effectively. In the same time, manager may have give up better solution or ideas. Avoidance (creation of withdraw) refers to the case of withdrawing or neutral tendencies, Managers have a tendency to avoid not only avoid conflict, but often play the role of communication between conflicting parties (Dietz and Stevenson, 1986)..

When they were asked to indicate the attitude of a controversy he often quibble, said I have no knowledge of this issue or I have to collect more information and so on. However, in the following cases adopting an evasive approach to management may be effective controversial issues trivial or only temporary, is not worth the time and effort spent to face these conflicts. When the managers actual power needed to handle conflicts was asymmetries, the evasive attitude may be more sensible. For example, as a lower level employee when face the conflict with senior managers, and take evasive approach may be better (Fugal, Garrett, Bantam, 1992).

Accommodation (creation of lose-win situation) refers to the case of the conflict parties to the conflict to try to weaken the difference, more emphasis on the moon interests of both sides. The main purpose of taking this approach is to reduce the level of tension in the conflict. Accommodation is focus on the feelings, rather than the actual face of conflict resolution, so this way naturally limited success (Fitzpatrick and Winked, 1979). In certain situation, take accommodation management style may have a temporary effect when the both sides in the simmering tensions situation.

The relationship had maintained in order to avoid splitting reconcile the situation. Competition (creation of fighting) refers to the use power of rewards and amusements to dominate others, forcing others to comply with the decision of managers. In general, this will only satisfied one part. Often use of such management solve the conflict consider as incompetent performance (Thomas and Killing, 1974). For example, when dealing with subordinate conflicts, often use such as demotion, dismissal, and other threats to withhold bonuses.

When faced with a conflict between same levels subordinate, flattering the superiors in order to get support from superiors to suppress conflict other. Thus, often adopt this solution to the conflict management approach will lead to negative results. This approach will play a role when urgent action must be taken immediately. Collaboration (creation of win-win situation) is the conflicting parties are willing to the underlying reasons the conflict both sides share information and Jointly seek solutions beneficial to both sides (Van Slake, 1999 in Goodwin, 2002, 383).

With this management can discuss the causes of conflict and seek effective solutions. It is suitable for a collaboration approach to management when stakeholders with a common goal and are willing to reach an agreement. Cooperative management approach should be taken to comply with the Renville of first both sides must have communication and feedback according to the issues. Second, analysis of the problem and formulate feasible plan for compromise and understanding each other opinions. Finally, do not set in advance of other side personality, such as lack of conservation or rude.

Although collaborative approach is considered to be the best way, but the other four approaches also have their applicable too. In terms of both sides of the conflict, sometimes need the help of a third party to facilitate the accomplishment of cooperation (Ihram, 1992 in Antonio, 1998). Personal Opinion Conflict resolution style not only based on the situation but also related with the culture of organization. Asian traditional management, the main characteristic is to avoid the interpersonal conflict. While patience and compromise does not work in the situation, then they will adopt an evasive way to avoid conflict.

In other hand, to meet competition, the options strategy of Western orientation management are proactive and individualism. Conflict consider as a challenge for them. They fully play to their enthusiasm and initiative, hesitate to challenge, adventure, personal struggle, and various ways to achieve their goals. Conclusion Conflict is Just byproducts brought by the development, change or innovation. Nobody likes conflict, but conflicts are surrounding us. Conflict is not all bad, it can expose problems in the organization, to promote public discussion of issues, and enhance the vitality of enterprises and stimulate healthy competition.