Does personality has any relation to self-assessed Intelligence? It depends on the elements that contribute to personality. What is personality? Personality is defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought (Lopper, 1961, p. 28). On the other hand, intelligence is defined as a very general mental capability that, among other things, Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex Ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.
It Is not merely kook learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather It reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings-“catching on,” “making sense” of things, or “figuring out” what to do. (Cottonseeds, AAA, p. Al 3). Personality is generally enduring and stabilized when a person grows into adulthood. It does, to a certain extent, contribute to intelligence, which will be described below. Personality can be categorized under five components. They are trait, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral-learning and psychoanalytic and Neo psychoanalytic.
Trait The most popular trait approach is The Big Five. It is an inventory of items which one responds on a five-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. It consists of statements to assess the five elements: (a) Openness – openness to experience and ideas. (b) Conscientiousness – self-discipline, achieving and responsible as oppose to irresponsible, careless and undependable (c) Extroversion – it rates an Introvert or extrovert person (d) Agreeableness – It rates how friendly, nurturing and caring a person Is as oppose to cold.
Indifference, spiteful and self- entered (e) Neurotics – it refers to negative and upsetting emotion. People who rate high on neurotics tend to be anxious, emotionally ‘sour’, irritable and unhappy. Recent studies (Camphor-Premiums, Mountain, & Burnham, 2005; Burnham, Camphor-Premiums, & Mountain, 2005) reveal that those who score high in Neurotics tend to possess low self-esteem and negative thoughts, while those who score high In extroversion tend to be more active, confident and optimistic. Those who scored high in Agreeableness are considered to be modest. Thus personality traits as in
Emotional Stability (low Neurotics) and Extroversion influence a person’s abilities positively which in turn drive up the performance. It suggests a high estimated intelligence or is believed to be very bright. However, statistics in the studies have shown a weaker correlation on Openness. Humanistic Humanistic approach focuses on personal growth. In Abraham Mascots theory, It Indicates that a person Is motivated by a hierarchy of needs. One must fulfill the basic needs before they reach the higher tier. It starts from (a) physiological which refers to the basic needs such as food and water.
Next in line is the safety (b) which refers to stable employment, health care and shelter. Social needs (c) are third on the pyramid structure. It refers to friendship, family and sexual intimacy in fulfillment. The fourth on the pyramid is (d) Esteem. Needs for confidence, achievement, recognition and self-esteem are Important In this tier. The last on the pyramid Is (e) concerned about personal growth such as problem solving, creativity, morality among others. These are the people who are looking to fulfill their potential. Humanistic approach is subjective as it draws from people’s experiences and views.
It is based on an analysis of how people perceive and understand the world. Methods are regarded as qualitative instead of quantitative which are more scientific. Humanistic methods are not rigor and are based on the positive views of human nature. But when it comes to domestic violence, greed and warfare, one could not imagine the undesirable outcomes it bring and its negative effects. Humanistic approach focuses on free will, which is different from other approaches and is considered holistic. In conclusion, it suggests to factor certain levels of considerations which affect one’s intelligence in relation to humanistic approach.
Cognitive Cognitive approach focuses on mental processes such as memory, how people perceive things, their thinking, problem solving abilities and subsequently their behavior. In Jean Piglet’s theory, it suggests that children go through four stages of mental development. In the first stage, seniority stage, infants first became aware of the world through their movements and senses. As they progress to operational stage, from the ages of two to seven, they start to associate words and pictures with objects. They see things from their own perspective.
During the third stage, concrete operational stage, children begin to think logically. Lastly, during the formal operation stages where children above 12 years old begins to think about issues using theoretical and abstract reasoning. These four stages show how children understand the world and in relation, how intelligent they are as compared with adults. However, one cannot discount the environmental factor which also plays a part in cognitive development. In a study (http://www. Centerpieces. Com/ science/article/pi/S0191886907000232), data has shown cognitive traits between science and humanities students.
It was hypothesized that the science students would be systematizing and thus, would be in association with engineering and physics field. Humanities students were shown to be amphetamine. Behavioral-learning Behavioral-learning approach focuses on learning through observing behavior. This is done by responding to certain stimuli. Behavior is learnt through experiencing and interacting with the environment. This is reflected in Skinner’s Behavioral Theory. He is best known in operant conditioning where positive stimuli reinforce certain behavior which leads to good desirable results.
Alternatively, negative stimuli will lead to punishment. In Albert Bandanna’s social learning theory, learning happens through observational learning, imitation and modeling and is shaped by situations or environments, cognition and behavioral. Bandeau believed in reciprocal determinism, which means that the world causes behavior in a person and vice versa. Behaviorism indicates that the environment causes a person’s behavior. In Bandanna’s Boob doll experiment, it was shown that children observe, learn and imitate the violent behavior that an adult inhibited towards the boob doll.
When the children were allowed to play with the boob doll in a room, they began to copy the violent actions displayed by the adult earlier. Bandanna’s theory indicates that although something is learned, it has not necessary cause a change in behavior. Behavioral approach does not necessary contribute to intelligence too different situations. Human behavior is complex as they process their thoughts in a complex manner. Let’s take boob doll experiment for instance. If the children did not get to see how the adult behaves towards the boob doll, what kind of treatment o you think the children will do to the boob doll?
As in Skinner’s theory, he derives his conclusions from animal studies and so, it would not be appropriate to apply the same theory to human beings. Biological factors and personality traits should not be underestimated as well. It should be taken into account along with behavioral learning approach. Psychoanalytic and Neo psychoanalytic Psychoanalytic approaches focuses on the view of the unconscious which causes human emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. In Sigmund Freud psychoanalytic theory, it was structured into three parts – the ‘d, ego and superego. D is the primitive and instinctive component of personality.
It is the basic drives that are unconscious. It is also the impulsive part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts. Ego, which is based on reality principle, works out a rational way to satisfy the id’s demands. Superego controls id’s impulses. It provides the wrong and right sense according to the socially acceptable way through values and morals of society which are learned from one’s parents and others. In Fraud’s theory, ego deploys defense mechanisms to deal with conflict and problems in life to rive off unpleasant feelings like anxiety and make good things better for the person.
Examples of defense mechanisms are repression, denial, projection, displacement, regression and sublimation. Neo psychoanalytic thinkers basically agrees with the basics of Sigmund Fraud’s theory. They evolved the latter’s theory to include its own beliefs and ideas. Neo psychoanalytic thinkers acknowledge that the unconscious mind influences behavior and they focus their study in this area – how a person develops and grows while interacting with the external environment and internal self, together with drives and needs. Major neo psychoanalytic thinkers include Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Karen Horny.
Carl Jung theory was structured as three parts, the ego which refers to the conscious mind, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious where it consists of the person’s experience and knowledge. It was believed that the three parts shall be integrated as a whole for a person to grow and becomes his or her “true self”. Alfred Adler was also one of the neo psychoanalytic who suggested that every person has an inferiority complex. In overcoming this, the person will use their superiority to supersede the inferiority. This drive motivates human behaviors, emotions and thoughts.
Karen Horny was another neo psychoanalytic who followed much of Fraud’s theory. She believed in neurotic needs and went further to develop ten neuroses which includes the need for affection, independence, power and social prestige. Karen Horny also believed that people can self-heal and capitalize on their own mental health by encouraging self-analysis and self-help. Fraud’s psychoanalytic theory seems critic as the unconscious mind is over-emphasized. Fraud’s theory is also based on case studies ND clinical observation rather than scientific research; it remains a question on its validity.
Moreover, psychoanalytic concepts are difficult to measure and quantify and so, it would be difficult to prove it scientifically. On the other hand, we cannot dispute psychoanalytic out totally. There are strengths in the theory which remain remains effective and credible in treating mental illness. For example, one could seek professional counseling help to relieve psychological distress. The method and theories also contributed to experimental psychology. Overall, psychoanalysis is still influential, can be applied in practical ways and it does possess some accuracy.
For example in psychoanalytic therapy, psychologists treat their patients by listening to their patients. Psychologist will look for patterns or significant events that are hampering the patient’s current difficulties. They will try to eliminate the unconscious feelings and thoughts that cause the problem, thus improving or elevate the intelligence of the patient’s state of mind to the pre-mental illness stage. It changes the problematic behaviors, feelings and thoughts by looking into the unconscious meaning and motivations. (1750 words)