Three adaptation scenarios new Irrigation technology scenario, new Irrigation technology along with crop change scenario, and new irrigation technology along with reducing crop area scenario) were analyzed to consider their effects to mitigate the negative impact of climate change in the Arkansas River Basin.. This indicates that globe warming is a potentially very serious problem for water management in the Arkansas River Basin. He Greenhouse Effect refers to a naturally occurring phenomenon that is responsible for maintaining a temperature that supports life on earth.
However, this is often confused with the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect occurs because of the trapping of heat reflected from the earth’s surface by certain gases in the atmosphere. Without the Greenhouse Effect, life on earth as we know It would be Impossible. The Greenhouse Effect In Itself Is not Intrinsically bad. In fact, It Is a feature necessary to support life. Imagine that 100 units of solar energy are being beamed from the sun to the earth. Because of its nature, this is termed short-wave radiation, and it has the ability to penetrate the atmosphere.
Although 42 percent is either absorbed en route by ozone, water vapor, and dust, or reflected from clouds, etc. A further 9 percent is reflected from the earth’s surface. Nevertheless 49 percent of the energy is estimated to be absorbed by the earth’s surface. However, the earth’s surface re-radiates energy outwards through the atmosphere, but it does so in much longer infrared wavelengths which have much greater difficulty to penetrate the atmosphere on the return Journey. Much of this re-radiated energy is subjected to back-radiation from the greenhouse gases which trap the outgoing heat and retransmit this back to the earth’s surface.
The total balance Is further complicated by the effects of photoengraving’s from the earth’s forests and flora, making up a delicate and complicated balance. In this sense the greenhouse gases play an important and positive role in ensuring that cold and miserable place. What is the subject of concern is that this positive role may now be affected by human practices and practices through the years, which Just might be throwing this delicate mechanism off balance by causing more back- radiation from the atmosphere.
The end result would be warmer global surface temperatures. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect is a different matter altogether and occurs when excessive amounts of greenhouse gases [carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, chlorofluorocarbons] are placed in the atmosphere often through human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and pastoral activities. The following provides a description of the activities which cause these excessive emissions, and the significance of their contribution to the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect.
The above table does not claim to be a complete list of the greenhouse gases, indeed others are still being identified. Among the most complicated, perhaps is Ozone, about which a few words are Justified here. Ozone is toxic at the earth’s surface yet can be environmental beneficial in that its presence in the stratosphere plays a major role in limiting the harmful ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth’s surface, and yet even this benefit has to be balanced by the fact that also in the stratosphere it acts like other greenhouse gases.
One must realize that ozone does not welcome the presence of many of the other greenhouse gases, even to the extent that its concentration in the upper atmosphere, and especially in high latitudes is at risk from attack and depletion by other gases. In fact, there is more concern over the Appleton of ozone by its interaction with other greenhouse gases, notably the chlorofluorocarbons, than in its role as an agent for climate change. Ozone depletion threatens humanity through the incidence of skin cancer and genetic damage.
It also threatens natural mechanisms which currently automatically remove other gas hazards from the environment, such at the take-up of carbon dioxide by the oceans. The story of ozone represents a prime example of the many difficulties which surround corrective policies in the matter of climate change, not to mention the tendency for attention to one problem serving to increase the danger from another. Generally the release of the greenhouse gases has a strong effect on the delicate balance of the atmosphere, and when there are greater levels of these gases in the atmosphere, they will trap more heat in the lower atmosphere.
There is evidence which shows a 30 percent increase in the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 200 years. If the world community fails to act on this problem, scientists calculate that the continuing increase of greenhouse gases could lead to an overall temperature increase of about 2 degrees Celsius worldwide over the next 100 years, perhaps more. How much Global Warming is currently occurring? Climatologists have observed a slight, but fairly steady, rise in temperatures since the sass, when reliable temperature records became available worldwide. What Does This Slight Rise Tell us?
It is still too early to be certain that this indicates a long-term trend which will continue or whether this is a part of a natural cycle which will eventually reverse. Nevertheless, we cannot afford to ignore the rise. It is important to establish if increasing temperatures signal global climate change. To do this, one must be sure global perspective. How is This Done? Meteorologists try to make measurements which cover the entire globe by dividing the planet into an enormous imaginary grid. They then attempt to ensure that each element in the grid is serviced by a weather station.
In addition to weather stations on the ground, scientists take measurements at sea and also take measurements remotely from satellites fitted with delicate sensors. Averaging all the measurements produced by these stations yields a global average temperature. Plotting these averages on a graph enables meteorologists to observe trends in rising or falling enraptures, but long records over many years are essential if the trend is to be identified against a background of noisy, natural phenomena. Can the Future be Forecast from Past Evidence? The identification of climate trends is no easy matter.
The earth’s system contains complicated interactions of atmosphere, ocean, and land-based processes. Both atmosphere and particularly the ocean have the capacity to store heat and to transport it over great distances. It is now believed that processes occurring in one location (such as the cooling of the ocean surface in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic) may well be controlling the transport of heat and ocean circulation as far as the antipodes (such as in the above case the trans-equatorial flow from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean).
In these circumstances, the risk of deception by investigating too regionalism an area or too short a record are obvious, and even a worldwide comprehensive data bank of good quality observation over a period of 50 to 100 years may still deceive the world’s best scientists. It is also necessary to bear in mind that over the earth’s long history there is evidence that climate has oscillated over a great range, sometimes warmer, sometimes cooler. The evidence is that the Earth does have the capacity to correct and reverse these wild swings without the influence of human activity.
Even if we are to identify a long-term trend in climate with surety, it will still be necessary to ascertain whether this is part of the natural sequence of the earth’s fluctuating climate or whether this really is a response to human influence. Nevertheless the risks are too great to ignore, if there is the slightest chance that human activities do carry blame. Indeed the argument is persuasive in view of the serious possible consequences, that corrective action would be taken, Just in case, before we are really sure of the processes.
Some Climatic Factors First of all, we must be sure that we are correctly measuring climatic parameters. Consequently, we should understand the major distinction between climate and weather. Weather refers to atmospheric conditions on a short time scale such as days or weeks. If it is sunny and hot today, and rainy and cooler tomorrow, there has been a change in the weather. Climate refers to conditions over a longer time scale where the disturbances of weather are averaged into an accepted seasonal pattern ever the year and where there is some expectancy that such an annual pattern will persist over several years.
Global Climate Change refers to a worldwide shift or trend in atmospheric conditions extending over years, decades, centuries, or millennia. The expected climatic condition is modified, usually marginally, as the years progress. By this definition, we have over the last hundred years experienced slight global summers do not mean global warming nor do three cold winters mean a new ice age. The most that statistics can tell us at present is that there does appear to be a genuine warming trend.
Whether this trend is the effect of greenhouse gas emissions or of a natural fluctuation due to some as-yet-undiscovered mechanism cannot be determined from an analysis of the global mean temperature alone. Such natural, century-time-scale fluctuations appear to have occurred in the past (although none in the last 9000 years was as large as the change forecasted to occur over the coming century). Unambiguous detection of climate change is likely to be a painfully slow process, involving much more detailed comparison of climate model results observations.
Climate responds to so many factors that it is difficult to be sure that he proposed climate models used by scientists today are appropriate and complete. Factors that Influence Climate Astronomical Influences Changes in earth’s orbit around the Sun or changes in the distribution of solar energy sweeping earth’s surface. Changes in ovulates of the earth’s orbit (period of 100,000 years). Changes in tilt of the earth’s axis (period of 41,000 years). Closeness of earth to sun (period of 22,000 years). Inclination of plane of Earth’s orbit to the average plane of the Solar System (the 100,000 year cycle involving cycles of atmospheric dust). Geological Forces Plate tectonics carry land masses to warmer or cooler latitudes. Volcanic activity carries large quantities of dust to the upper atmosphere and reduce incoming solar radiation. Meteorological Influences Cloud cover and winds contribute to climate. Physical Processes In the oceans and atmosphere interact to cause climate changes.
Life cycles Of plants and animals affect the balance of climate. It all adds up! All these contributions to global climate are natural. In other words, changes can take place irrespective of the presence of human beings on earth. Astronomical, illogical, and meteorological processes of the past had nothing to do with humans. But, human beings would be unwise to ignore the effects of their activities on climate. Why? There is increasing evidence that our activities can alter global climate as indicated earlier.
In summary, we are also adding gases to the atmosphere which appear to have warmed the planet over the last hundred years. These gases are the so named greenhouse gases. More Info on the Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect is a natural process occurring in the atmosphere which has been present since time began. It is a heat trapping effect of the atmosphere which provides the Earth with a stable climate that allows life to flourish. Without it, the Earth would be too cold to sustain life.
How this natural phenomenon works is well researched and understood. The word “greenhouse” originated from a small glass house sometimes seen in mid to high latitudes where attempts were made to cultivate plants and trees from a warmer climate. As far back as Greek and Roman times, people made structures that created an indoor environment suited to growing plants throughout the year. With climate control, a gardener could provide fresh r plastic, but still allow us to maintain year-round greenery, and so, are called greenhouses.
The idea is that the short-wave radiation from the Sun goes into the house by penetrating the transparent glass, but it does not come out after reflection from the ground or any object in there and the heat energy is trapped inside. When the short-wave radiation is reflected from the ground inside the glass house, the wavelengths of reflected rays become longer and the penetrating power is reduced, accordingly, they do not fully escape the glass house. Due to the accumulating heat energy, the inside temperature rises naturally and tropical plants can grow.
As we are aware that our planet receives energy (solar radiation) continuously from the sun, it must get rid of this energy at the same rate by radiating it back out to space. Greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, water vapor, and color-floor-hydrocarbons) absorb some of this energy as it is being radiated out into space. In this way, the earth’s surface has been provided with the required, regular supply of energy for life. If the concentrations of these gases increase, more heat will be trapped causing changes to the condition of the atmosphere and consequently to climate.
It is being understood that these greenhouse gas concentrations are increasing and one probable result among others is a warming of the earth’s surface (in the lower atmosphere), resulting in increasing temperature (global warming), climate changes, and subsequently associated sea level rises. Concerns about the enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect and its likely impacts on the climate system stem from disturbing findings by climate scientists who have studied this process over a period of time.
They have demonstrated the close correlation’s between the rapid build up of concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the warming of the earth’s surface. Rapid increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are due mainly to human activities such as: 1 . Burning of fossil fuels (oil coal and natural gas) and deforestation increase the concentration of carbon dioxide. 2. Intensive agriculture, coal mining and rubbish dumps are major sources of methane. 3. Industrialized products such as spray cans, air conditioners, and refrigerators, which use CIFS continue to emit CIFS once discarded. Nitric oxide and ozone levels in the lower atmosphere (not the ozone layer) are also increasing rapidly, for reasons that are less clear at present. Since human activities bring about this increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, human responsibilities and actions should see to it that the trend of increase in greenhouse gas concentrations should be reversed and, if possible, returned to safe levels. L. Illumination “Since the beginning of time people have needed to find a way of disposing of their trash. “(Basis, Luke)Proper garbage disposal is important to ensure everyone’s safety room possible health hazards.
The improper waste disposal of garbage is a major sociological problem today due to its capability of contaminating the area in which we live and it’s potential to be lethal to all living things. Its effects increase the risk of adverse health effects in humans and animals, causes damage to echo-systems and accelerate the destruction of our environment. The more waste we generate, the more we have to dispose of. In the condition of 5th Camilla SST. , Bargain San publics and other commercial establishments hence, many people are coming to the said street and leaving lot of litter.
So to say, the residents are the ones that are responsible for cleaning the area. It is true that they do clean the streets but the litters or garbage that is collected are not thrown away properly. II. A. Statement of the Problem The improper waste disposal of every household in 5th Camilla SST. , Bargain San Rogue, Murphy, Guenon City causes threat to the health of their family and to the environment. The residents are not well aware of the effects that they may face in the future if they will not learn how to become responsible on their own trash, may be it from their own homes or from outside their house.