Global Energy Supply Mix

Energy management should become more sustainable and less dependent on fossil fuels. The objective here Is, To understand what is energy consumption and demand of today’s world and how will it be fulfilled in the next 40 years.

How can we switch from hunting and gathering energy through fossil fuels to manufacturing energy from renewable energy resources? How to implement this into he energy system? It is not something we can Just turn on in one day, it is going to be very significant transformation of the way we live life. The focus here Is to Identify new green technologies available today and how they can be fused Into different sectors of society to reduce dependence on fossils fuels.

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New green energy technologies coming from renewable energy sources Like wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and hydro are Identified and It’s explained how mature these technologies are relative to commercial use. There are viable conversion technologies that are currently available ND as the costs go down with rising competition the numbers are going to grow over the next decade. Understanding the need of the transformation to renewable sources is discussed based on global energy poverty scenarios.

It is suggested that developing countries should not fulfill their energy demand with fossil fuels rather government, federal and provincial authorities should implement ways in which green energy and sustainable development are given incentives and priority which eventually help the communities In the developing countries to become sulfanilamide when It comes to energy requirements.

Also the question why we need green energy Is answered by providing facts Like climate change, search for cheap fossil fuels leading to catastrophes or disasters like oil spills and their increasing frequency in last few deep waters, tar sand, mining deeper for coal etc.

The concept of green energy revolution is highlighted where a strategy is provided for transforming the global energy market through addition of renewable energy sources in the power sector, transportation and building systems design, the concept of energy efficiency & introducing efficiency standards, and energy policy formulation eating to phasing out fossil fuels completely by end of the century. Some of the challenges and advantages of the green revolution are discussed based on some example and new technology implementation in the field.

Finally a proposal for the supply mix based on the above discussion is put forward with some interesting conclusion and observations built on the research, explaining clearly what is to gain from the transformation to a sustainable and green energy manufacturing civilization. How the steps we take now will shape the future of the generations to come. 1 List of Figures Figure 1 Global primary energy mix: history and outlook as projected by Schoolteacher (2006).

The figure is based on weighting the components “sustained strong economic growth”, “security of energy supply ” and “ecological precaution “throughout the 21st century; others: oil shale, hydrogen, waste incineration; electricity from nuclear, hydro, etc. 5 0 Figure 2 Gerry fluxes through the Earth surface system are primarily fed by Gerry sources from gravity and solar radiation. Additional Gerry is stored in intermediate, secondary sources such as fossil and nuclear fuels. Only a fraction of the Gerry flow and repositories is economically utilized by man for energy consumption. 0 Figure 3 Energy potential of renewable sources of energy. ((European Renewable Energy council ERECT, 2010), (source: WEBB 2008 (Greenback/ERECT 2008))) 9 0 Figure 4 Shows some of the renewable energy solutions. Plenty of choices, but a right balance of supply mix needs to be optimized for a sustainable future. (Source: (Whisperers et al. , 2012)) 11 0 Figure 5 Total energy related emissions and reductions under 2% green investment scenario, relative to business as usual. 0 Figure 6 Shows elements of building design that can substantially reduce the 13 energy use. Tests, 2010) 5 0 Figure 7 Overview of the future power system with high penetration of renewable. (European Renewable Energy Council ERECT, 2010) 18 0 Figure 8 Policies for supporting the growth and development of renewable energy sources. (Source: EIA 2011 World Energy Outlook (Katie, 2012)) 21 Figure 9 Show the potential of Hydro(Water), Wind & Solar energy through 2050. (WFM, 2011) 23 0 Figure 11 Shows projections of world energy and share of renewable and non- 140 renewable. (WIFE) 24 Figure 12 Developments of Costs for Renewable vs..

Conventional Energy sources by 2050. (European Renewable Energy Council ERECT, 2010) 25 Figure 13 External Cost (European Renewable Energy Council ERECT, 2010) 0 List of Tables Table 1 . Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies (European Renewable Energy council ERECT, 2010) 7 Table. 2 Phases of technological maturity for renewable energy sources. (European Renewable Energy Council ERECT, 2010)(Source: Based on Table 1. 3 in EPIC) 102 Table of Contents 1 . Introduction …… 41. 1 Analogy ? 52. Renewable Energy Sources . 7 2. The Potential of Renewable Energy Resources 8 2. 2 Stages of Technological Maturity 9 3. Implementing Renewable Energy and why we need it? 11 4. The Green Energy . 124. 1 path to Transformation . 13 4. 2 The Challenges Ahead ? . 14 4. 2. 1 Energy Efficiency – More with less ? Building Energy Efficiency ? ? 14 Power Sector 16 Transportation Sector 17 Climate 19 Energy Policy & Market Regulation … 20 Targets and Incentives for Renewable ? 21 5. The Energy Supply Mix Conclusions Personal … 26 References ? ? 3 1. Introduction 22 6. … 240 … 8 Energy makes the world go round; it has since the beginning of time. Back in the day, work we did was mostly done by our self and as we moved forward we started using animals to do some of that work for us, and soon after we harnessed the power of the mind and the rivers, but after that we took the next step in our development when we started using fossil fuels like coal and oil to produce energy for doing work. The modern world is built on these fossil fuels which cannot last forever. Fossil fuels – millions of year in the making gone in Just a few centuries.

The problem we are facing now is that the supply is running out and the demand is expected to grow significantly by 2050 as the world population climbs up to 9 billion. We will need as much as half of more energy as we are using now by mid-century, maybe even more ND possibly more than three times the amount of energy we are using now by the end of the century (Fig. 1 Cues, 2010)). But where is all this energy going, let’s do a comparison to other mammals living on the planet. Animals for instance get most of the energy they need from the food they eat, we used to be the same but that is now changed.

Animals’ use of energy is based on the fact that they use it to survive. We as humans on the other hand consume as much energy as possible for leisure, entertainment and similar items which are not based on Just survival anymore it is part of our daily lifestyle. Every time we hit the lights, every time we hit the gas we are using energy, whatever we eat or buy carries a hidden energy price tag. So is there enough energy on the planet for us to survive as the way we are living and spending energy today? The answer is yes. There is more than enough energy in the form of wind, solar, geothermal, hydro, tidal and biomass.

But it will need a lot of effort and a deviation from the way of life we are living now. We need to change the the society around us to become aware of the fact that we have only one planet and it provides us with life, but the path which we are on right now where we use fossil eels to run the energy heavy lifestyle it is putting a lot of pressure on the resources of this planet. For instance if everyone in the world starts to use as much energy as a person in the US uses, we will need as many as five earths to sustain as a species. The objective here is, will it be fulfilled in the next 40 years? Manufacturing energy from renewable energy resources? How to implement these resources into the energy system? 4 Figure 1 Global primary energy mix: history and outlook as projected by Schoolteacher (2006). The figure is based on weighting the components “sustained electricity from nuclear, hydro, etc. 1. 1 Analogy The analogy around which this article will be focused is very simple, so what is it? Let us go back a few thousand years when we were evolving as a species and we started to think about what we eat and more importantly how we find what we eat.

We started from hunting and gathering food but the real turning point in the evolution of our species happened when we learned agriculture. Basically we transformed ourselves from being a species that was dependent on hunting and gathering food to producing or manufacturing food ourselves. This change in the way we obtain food came a very significant factor in the development of the human beings as a civilization. We were able to settle in one place around fertile land grow food as much as needed to develop a prosperous life. 5 Now let’s try and apply this same approach to energy.

For the past 250 years we have been trying to find sources of energy which are mostly fossil fuels or for nuclear fission power indirectly finding radioactive elements as fuel for reactor. So, now it will be correct if it is implied that we have still not completely evolved in the way we are obtaining energy as we are still focused on the concept of exploring and gathering sources for generating energy rather than manufacturing energy. Manufacturing energy is nothing new we have been manufacturing energy for a very long time.

Electrical energy which we use on a daily basis in every household or “spinning a wheel”, take a magnet spin it inside a coil wire to free up some electrons and we have a generator. The process is almost the same for spinning the wheel and generating electricity no matter which type of fuel is used. Burn coal boil water generate steam turn the wheel create electricity, swap out coal with oil, natural gas, nuclear fission or even hydro power directly it will still spin the wheel. Let go back a step and try to understand what is wrong with type of approach of using fossil fuels in the current situation.

If it was the 19th century there will be no issue in burning fossil fuels because it was abundant, cheap and peak for oil was not reached. And more importantly the amount of energy consumed per capita was significantly low to have an impact on the environment through emissions. Fossil fuels were the key to the modernization of the world economy in the last century. But burning this much amount of fossil fuels in a matter of few hundreds of years which were made over millions of years has consequences.

Pushing out carbon from inside the earth and sending it into environment through combustion is not a good idea for the global climate. In the last few decades we have seen greenhouse gases changing the balance of the atmosphere if we continue to burn fossil fuels it will have irreversible changes to the environment and the atmosphere. As mentioned earlier that as we evolved from hunting and gathering food to growing food, we need to start to using better conversion technologies by using renewable energy sources like wind, geothermal, solar, hydro, tidal, and biomass to fulfill our energy demand.

The focus here is what kind of energy supply mix will be required and transformation in the way of life will be required to revert from our dependence on fossil fuels and use renewable energy resources with focus on sustainability. This will be discussed in detail in the next section where a list of available renewable energy sources will be identified with a brief insight on their potential. Also, some light will be shed on the stages at which the technology for each of these energy sources stands today and what are the future prospects for the next few decades. 2. Renewable Energy Sources Nature has provided us with abundant renewable sources of energy. One of the most powerful source of energy is the Sun which is at the core of the whole energy system around us. It is the driving force behind the most of the other renewable and non- renewable sources of energy. Wind, tidal, bio-mass, solar radiation, geothermal and even fossil fuels are some or the other way formed due to the Sun.

Above Table 1 (European Renewable Energy Council ERECT, 2010) shows a variety of technologies available for use under each of the renewable energy sources on our planet in the form of electricity, heating and cooling, and transportation. But it will be unfair if we only try and focus on a single source of renewable energy from the table above as we have been doing in the past with fossil fuels where oil and coal are the most dominant forms of energy sources on which our whole energy economy is impact on our economy as a whole since every part of our life where energy is consumed is somehow connected to the availability and price of oil.

The question which really needs to be answered is not whether a single ideal kind of renewable energy source should replace oil, but in fact how to formulate an energy supply mix room the above sources of renewable energy which can help us to transform ourselves as a global community to sustain a healthy lifestyle and economic growth without damaging the environment and putting too much pressure on the planet.

That is easier said than done as every challenge has obstacles this one indeed has some very unique obstacles which will be discussed in a later section? (European Renewable Energy council ERECT, 2010) 7 2. 1 The Potential of Renewable Energy Resources Mother Nature has provided us with broad range of renewable energy sources like oceans energy, ego- and solar thermal, wind, photovoltaic, bio-energy, hydro power ND solar thermal electricity.

All these are in one way or another are connected to two major sources of power which is the Sun and the energy from the earth itself. Most of these renewable energy sources are derived directly or indirectly from the constant flow of energy coming from the Sun to earth or from the continuous heat flux from the earth. Figure 2((Whisperers, Taylor, Ban, Ads, & Wet, 2012)) below maps out the constant flow of Gerry fluxes through the surface of the earth primarily fed by Gerry sources from gravity and solar radiation.

Figure 2 Gerry fluxes through the Earth surface system are primarily fed by Gerry resources from gravity and solar radiation. Additional Gerry is stored in intermediate, secondary sources such as fossil and nuclear fuels. Only a fraction of the Gerry flow and repositories is economically utilized by man for energy consumption. Out of these constant flows of energy amounts renewable energy is roughly about 3000 times the total present day energy consumption of the whole of mankind (Figure. 3 (European Renewable Energy Council ERECT, 2010)).

Just to understand exactly how much is the amount of 8 energy coming from the Sun, here is an analogy; it is roughly estimated in one day he sunlight which reaches the earth produces enough energy to fulfill the current global power demand for eight years . We have lacked the technological capability in the past to be able to harvest this energy source which has led us to be dependent on fossil fuels. But in today’s world we are certainly capable of harvesting the energy from the various renewable energy sources to satisfy the planet’s enormous energy needs.

Figure 3 Energy potential of renewable sources of energy. ((European Renewable Energy council ERECT, 2010), (source: WEBB 2008 (Greenback,’ERECT 2008))) 2. 2 Stages of Technological Maturity For the past two decades there has been a significant increase in the development of development in the area of renewable energy and sustainable development. Table 2 displays the phases of maturity for principal renewable energy technologies according to four phases of maturity: research and development; demonstration and deployment; diffusion; and commercially mature.