When comparing language learning to the time spent on it in class on a whole, it could reasonably be argued that the teacher could do very little n improving a student’s ability in a relatively short amount of time. If a student spends more or less three hours a week in class, what do they do with the other 165 hours of the week? Language learning has come along way since then. The student has become the center of the language classroom (Tudor, 1996), and the role of the teacher has been to one of enabling the student to develop their own language abilities as they see fit (Benson & Volley, 1997).
This is a more holistic approach and considers the various aspects of the individual’s needs to learn language. This is where the use of games in he classroom comes in. Games have long been advocated for assisting language learning. Games are student-centered in such that students are active in playing the games, and games can often be organized such that students have the leading roles, with teachers as facilitators. This way, students would not realize it immediately, but they are actually learning at the same time that they are playing the game.
Play is an integral part of childhood, and as children play together, they’re not only having fun but are learning valuable skills as well. As quoted by Genevieve Roth, “Playing is a hill’s natural way of learning. ” So games should not only be looked at simply as child’s play, but rather a tool that can (and should) be used for teaching English. Games can be a safe opportunity to practice teaching without fear of ridicule. Due to the competitive nature of many games, they can provide a great sense of accomplishment for many students and their teammates as they watch their progression. Games to Teach English Learners By International Teacher Training Organization). Background of the Study The researcher is a rookie in teaching. It is her first time to be in the teaching profession. Although she is an education graduate, it took her years before she finally heeded the calling of being a teacher. In her early days of teaching Grade 2 elementary students, one thing she can be sure of is that these students are still kids and have not overcome their love for games yet. So the researcher has tried several methodologies in teaching Just to get the students’ attention to stay on the lesson.
One method that seems to work best is the use of games in teaching. But how effective are games and how important is it on improving the teaching methodologies of teachers and the learning strategies of the students? The article dated Swept 2005 – Volume 7. Issue 3 Article 1 published by Asian FEEL Journal, has enumerated quite a number of reasons why games should be used in language teaching. The following are some of the reasons stated. (1) Games add interest to what students might not find very interesting. Sustaining interest can all, learning a language involves long-term effort. 2) Games provide a context for meaningful communication. Even if the game involves discrete language items, such as a spelling game, meaningful communication takes place as students seek to understand how to play the game and as they communicate about the game: before, urine, and after the game (Wright, Bettering, & Buck, 2005). (3) This meaningful communication provides the basis for comprehensible input (Crashes, 1985), I. E. , what students understand as they listen and read, interaction to enhance comprehensibility, e. G. Asking for repetition or giving examples (Long, 1991), and comprehensible output, speaking and writing so that others can understand (Swain, 1993). (4) The emotions aroused when playing games add variety to the sometimes dry, serious process of language instruction ((Branford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000) Errors, 2000; Lee, 1995). 5) Games can involve all the basic language skills, I. E. , listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and a number of skills are often involved in the same game (Lee, 1995). The five reasons listed above could be a good enough basis why games should be applied in the classroom.
The study concerns itself on the effectiveness of games as a supplementary material in teaching selected grammar lessons to the Grade 2 students of MGM New Life Christian Academy. The researcher chose the grade two students for these students aging 7 and 8 are still in their childhood phase and they would not normally be interested in studying in general because most students in that range would be more preoccupied in games, TV shows, WI, SSP, and many other sources of distractions, or shall we say, many other things that they are more interested in rather than studying.
The LET Grammar Book describes games as a way “to have fun dealing with grammar as a change of pace. ” While games to teach English learners are indeed a “change of pace”, they are also very useful tools for fluency, as “Children tend to forget they are learning and so use the language spontaneously. ” (Roth). The same can be true for adults. Basically, if anybody is having fun doing something, there is no time to be bored or frustrated with it, and will get more out of the activity.
It is the exact reason why the researcher decided to cover the effectiveness of games as a supplementary material in teaching selected grammar lessons in English. Using games to teach English learners can help to make language learning a positive and exciting experience, which will be important and motivating to the students. If the students are motivated and engaged in the lesson, they would view each lesson as exciting as playing any other kind of game they play outside the classroom (Games to Teach English Learners By International Teacher Training Organization).
Theoretical Framework This research is grounded on social learning as conceptualized by prominent experts. The social learning theory of Bandanna emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandanna (1977) states: “Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. (app). Since games require more than one participant, learning will not be laborious at all because children do not need to rely solely on themselves. Even before a game is executed, the teacher explains the mechanics of the game and at the same time act out the game, and therefore is a model for the students who are observing before the game. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.
The component processes underlying observational learning are: (1) Attention, including modeled events (distinctiveness, affective alliance, complexity, prevalence, functional value) and observer characteristics (sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement), (2) Retention, including symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal), (3) Motor Reproduction, including physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback, and (4) Motivation, including external, vicarious and self reinforcement. Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database). Whisky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Weights (1978) states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (anthropologically) and then inside the child (anthropologically). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. (app). (Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database). Children learn when they are involved in the learning process. What a better way to involve them than in a recreation setting? Marinara, 6). An anonymous author mentioned that a major theme in the theoretical framework of Burner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (I. E. Schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to “go beyond the information given”. As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by homeless. The instructor and student should engage in an active dialogue (I. E. , Socratic learning). The task of the instructor is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned. Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database). Games require interaction from the teacher and the students, and therefore engage the teacher and the students to a meaningful conversation. In this way, children are continually building upon what they have already learned. This study is affixed to the belief that games serve as supplementary tool in successful language teaching. They serve as a medium to encourage social learning among the students. The conceptual framework of this research is presented in the following diagram.
The input-process-output approach is adopted for this study. The input box provides the games to be used in teaching the grade 2 students, and the Researcher- Made tests to be used to measure the respondents’ performance on the selected grammar topics that the researcher chose (nouns, adjectives, verbs). The information in the process box refers to the performance of the experimental group and control groups based on the two consecutive tests (the pre-test and the post-test) that will be administered. As output, the researcher will look at the implications of the findings for recommendation.
Statement of the problem Effectiveness of Games as a Supplementary Material in Teaching Selected Grammar Lessons to Grade Two Students of MGM New Life Christian Academy This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of games as a supplementary material in teaching selected grammar lessons to grade two students of MGM New Life Christian Academy. 1 . What is the performance of the experimental group in the pre-test and post-test? 2. What is the performance of the control group in the pre-test and the post-test? 3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the experimental and the control group in the following: a.
Pre-test b. Post-test 4. What are the implications of the findings on the effectiveness of using games in teaching selected grammar lessons in English? HYPOTHESIS There is no significant difference in English grammar achievement of students exposed to games and the control group in the pre-test and post-test. Scope and Limitations This study focuses on the effectiveness of games in teaching selected grammar lessons to the 75 Grade 2 students of the MGM New Life Christian Academy during the School Year 2009-2010. There are two kinds of researcher-made tests, the pre- test and the post-test.
The researcher-made tests covers only the three selected grammar lessons (nouns, adjectives, and verbs) for these are the basic lessons needed for the foundation of English language learning. Other lessons in grammar therefore are excluded. The games identified are limited to games that require interaction from the students. These games are Tic-tact-toe, Word search puzzle, Concentration Game, Crossword puzzle, and Charade. The students’ profiles were not included in this study, for the students are not classified according to age, academic performance, not even gender.
The three sections in grade two are grouped heterogeneously. On this note, the researcher find the students’ profile irrelevant to the study since this observation is focused on the results derived from the tests to be administered to the experimental group and the control group. Significance of the Study This study hopes to contribute to the enhancement of language teaching and earning. Them. That they could also have fun while they are learning. They will have a different perspective on language learning. They would always look forward into going to school and into learning more.
Teachers will be more fulfilled in teaching. That they do not need to force their students to study, and while their students are having fun, they are also having fun. There is nothing more fulfilling to teachers than seeing their students learn. Other elementary teachers teaching other subjects could also look into incorporating games to their lessons. Principals and master teachers, with the information derived from this investigation, may help direct strategies, policies and programs for the improvement of teaching in the elementary school.
School administrators can use the results of this study as a suitable basis for incorporating and enforcing the use of supplementary materials such as games in classrooms to help disseminate learning. Future researchers could use the findings of this study as a springboard for studies concerning the development of the language learning and teaching through various tools that can aid utmost and pervasive learning. Definition of Terms Game – is an activity with rules, a goal, and element of fun. Al Hatfield 1984: 27) Tic-tact-toe – is a pencil-and-paper game for two players, O and X, who take turns marking the spaces in a ex. Grid, usually X going first. The player who succeeds in placing three respective marks in a horizontal, vertical or diagonal row wins the game. (wisped. Org) Word Search Puzzle – is a word game that is made up of letters of a word in a grid that usually has a rectangular or square shape. The object of the game is to find and mark all of the words hidden in the grid. The words may have been placed horizontally, vertically or diagonally.
They may have been written backwards or not. Often a list of the hidden words is provided, but more challenging puzzles may let the player figure them out. Many word search puzzles have a theme to which all the hidden words are related. (wisped. Org) Concentration Game – is a game to teach English learners that uses cards to match vocabulary or grammar points and is best played in circle-groups so that everyone can see the cards. The students can help you by making pairs of cards so that they down in the middle of the circle.
Each student takes a turn by flipping two cards face- up. If they match, the student wins those cards. If they do not match, the student just flip them face-down again and continue to pay attention so that they can make a match on their next turn. Students will help each other decide when a match is made, but you will want to monitor as well and perhaps have each student share their pairs at the end of the game for extra review. (Frostier, 527) Crossword Puzzle – is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of black and white squares.
The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues which lead to the answers. In languages which are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed n the grid from left to right and from top to bottom. The black squares are used to separate the words or phrases. (wisped. Org) Charade – is a word-guessing game. In the form most played today, it is an “acting” game in which one player acts out a word or phrase, often by pantomiming similar- sounding words, and the other players try to guess the word or phrase.
The idea is to use physical rather than verbal language to convey the meaning to another party. (wisped. Org) Noun – A word that is used to name a person, place, thing, quality, or action and can function as the subject or object of a verb, the object of a preposition, or an positive. (The American Heritage Dictionary) Adjective – Any of a class of words used to modify a noun or other substantive by limiting, qualifying, or specifying and distinguished in English morphologically by one of several suffixes, such as -able, -us, -err, and -est.., or syntactically by position directly preceding a noun or nominal phrase. The American Heritage Dictionary) Verb – The part of speech that expresses existence, action, or occurrence in most languages. (The American Heritage Dictionary) CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the various researches, sources and investigation held in injection to the current study. Also included are the discussions of different observations, perceptions, experiences and reactions of the experts or authorities in the field of language teaching and learning and how they are related to the study.
RELATED LITERATURE Dunking and Fiddle (1974), and Safari et al. (1982) claim that teaching is a dynamic, international process in which the teacher’s ‘method’ results from the process of interaction between the teacher, the learners, and the instructional tasks and activities over time. Such an interaction reveals itself as a quite different approach to caching, one in which teachers are involved in observing and reflecting upon their teaching as well as the learning behaviors of their students; hence, effective teaching and learning.
Good (1979) has tried to operationally define the term “effective teaching” by describing it as teaching that produces higher-than-predicted gains on standardized achievement tests. This is where the use of games in the classroom comes in. Using games in the classroom requires more interaction and would mean more opportunity for the teacher to observe and reflect upon their teaching as well as learning behaviors of the students. Effective instruction requires the teacher to step outside the realm of personal experience unto the world of the learners (Brown, 1997).
It is the learners who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must make the commitment to learn. Newman et al (1995) pointed out that for learning to be meaningful (authentic) it must be individually constructed. Learning takes place as the student process, interpret and negotiate the meaning of new information. To Brown (1997), this is heavily influenced by the prior knowledge, values, expectations, reward and sanctions that shape the learning environment.
Marinara (1993), in her book “Games that Teach” cited that Children are constantly learning from the things they see, do, and are exposed to. She said that leaders [or teachers] can create positive learning experiences by remembering several things about children and how they relate to the learning process. She enumerated these things as the following: Children learn when they have love and respect for the teacher/leader. Remember that respect is something that is earned. It is not a natural achievement of age, sex, or race.
Teachers may earn the respect of children by showing the children respect. Children learn when they are involved in the learning process. What a better way to involve them than a recreation setting? Children learn when they have the necessary skills for the task at hand. In the recreation setting, as in any other, the teacher should be certain that the child is not being so overly challenged as to be unsuccessful or to feel slighted. Children learn when they see a need for the information being presented. Be certain that children are adequately prepared to begin each new learning process.
Give them access to the information before calling on them to use it. Children learn when it is enjoyable. So do adults! This is not a new concept. Why shouldn’t learning be fun? But remember, the children will not enjoy it if the leader does not enjoy it. Children learn when they have the encouragement of their peers. Recreation provides opportunities for children and their peers to learn together while they share information and encouragement. In the process they all can experience success, especially when leaders downplay the winner/loser concept in the recreation setting.
That is why you will find the non-competitive symbol beside variation to help children “win” by working together and sharing with one another. Aside from the above things mentioned about children, she also enumerated reasons on why games should be used to teach children. She further stated that learning should be a fun and rewarding experience. For that to happen, leaders should consider using games more often as teaching tools. When the game is completed, the teacher should take time to discuss with children the things they have learned as a result of playing the game.
Good games when used appropriately may: relieve tension for the child and help him to relax and unwind; increase the child’s interest in a given subject; id children in creating new relationships and strengthening relationships which already exist; help a child to feel better about himself/herself and those around him/ her; help a new child quickly become a part of the group; help a shy child move easily into becoming an active part of his peer group; help a child retain new information for a longer period of time; help a child to strengthen mental, physical, emotional, social, and possibly spiritual skills.
When it comes to teaching and leading a game, Marinara pointed out that there is no perfect answer on how to teach and lead games successfully. It may be easy for there, and hard for some. She also mentioned that a “successful game leader should first be a person who has a good self-image and good communication skills, who is not threatened by questions or by overly energetic children” (Marinara pa). A teacher should know what to do when her students start to raise their energy so high that everybody starts to make an uncontrollable noise.
She enumerated 13 ways on how to teach and lead games successfully. Among the 13 suggested ways, “Keeping a positive attitude because children could mirror the teacher’s attitude” (pa) is, I think, the most interesting tip when leading a game. Elizabeth Dalton in her article “Language Learning Games: Why, When, and HOW’ listed that few students less than 5% are able to endure the stressful nature of formal school training in languages. The task is to invent or discover instructional strategies that reduce the intense stress that students experience.
The goal is to develop an instructional strategy that has enough motivational power to persuade 75% of students who start language study, instead of the current 1 5%, to continue into the third year of language training. She therefore discussed further the benefit of using games in the classroom. She said that activities structured as games can provide concrete practice for learners, while reducing the tension and anxiety often encountered during the learning process.
Games can help with motivation, particularly cooperative games, and are easily adjusted in difficulty to reflect the learning levels of the students. Games are also a way to ensure all learners are included in the learning effort, not only a few highly motivated or extroverted students. Language learning environments, in particular, can benefit from the use of learning games.