Eating disorder (literature review)

Eating disorder (literature review) BY frenetically has a higher rate of suffering eating disorder than that of male. In the modern city, people promote the ‘perfect body shape’. This Is accompanied with the Impact with the psychological matters. Without the correct treatment of the disorder, a life-threatening situation to Individual Is resulted.

For anorexia nervous, the person eats nothing beyond animal amount of food, so body weight drops sharply, while bulimia nervous, out-of-control eating episodes, or binges, are followed by self- induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, or other attempts to purge of food. Many risk factors do not directly cause binge eating but they predispose the individual to these behaviors (Auburn, 2002). These factors include social, biological and psychological factors. Coloratura influences bring along disturbances of body image and eating.

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This pressures the idealization of thinness and disparagement of overweight. Social reinforcement and modeling promote attitudes and behavior (Auburn, 2002). Social reinforcement means the process which people internalize attitudes and demonstrates behaviors approved by respected others. Modeling means the process In which Individuals directly Imitate behaviors they observe (Auburn, 2002). Thus, body dissatisfaction Is built up. The theories of coloratura influence contain media, family and peer Influences.

From the mass media, the body dimensions of female models, actress and other female cultural icons become thinner. Only few overweight individuals can be the model in the media. This reinforces thinness’ as a perfect model. While their body shape is a bit different from the female models, they perceived themselves as fat’. For family influences, parents pressure their daughters to lose weight. They criticize them regarding weight, shape or appearance. More, the poorer the family relationship, the higher chance of suffering the eating disorder.

For the peer influences, individuals will perceive pressure when their friends lose weigh. More, peers making joke of weight prospectively predicts the Increases in body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance (Auburn, 2002). In biological dimensions, Individuals, who have the family history of suffering eating disorder, will have a higher chance to develop eating disorder. Also, the decrease of the release of neurotransmitters will also cause the eating disorder. For example, the release of serotonin directly controls the degree of appetite and weight.

This affects the hypothalamus activity of food intake. In psychological dimensions, it focuses on stress, personality, self-esteem and emotion. Self-esteem means the cognitive evaluation of one’s competence. Weight and shape are identified with self-esteem in individual with eating disorders. The lower the self-esteem, the higher the chance developing eating disorder is(Treasure, 2003). Personality means a stable way wherein individuals believe, react to, and interact with their environment (Keel, 2005).

Individuals who have eating disorder in personality will perceive a high level of perfectionism. Finally, individuals who suffer mood problem, like depression and anxiety etc, will have a higher chance to develop eating disorder. By cognitive- behavioral approach, In anorexia nervous, people usually have high level of constraint, low level of positive emotionality, the tendency to enjoy and be actively tendency to experience negative mood states (Keel. 2005). They have a high level of perfectionism. They will overly concern about their weight and shape.

And thus, they are easily perceived as negative feeling. Generally, dieting is followed by weight loss at last. As a result, this may produce positive reinforcement, the pleasing consequence of behavior that increases the probability that behavior will happen, in the form of expressing praise and attention form others (Keel, 2005). At the same time, compliment and attention are the positive reinforces of food restriction. In order to gain the compliment and attention form others, it is reinforced by weight loss.

By cognitive-behavioral approach, in bulimia nervous, by the interpersonal problem, like the peer effect, the bulimic perceive the weight gain under a period of time. For the women, who suffer the bulimia nervous, feel guilty. This follows the lowering of self-esteem which becomes overly concerned about their weight and shape (Agra’s, 2008). They are prone to distress and anxious. They restrict food intake to a greater extent than the others. Binge eating is followed by purging in the bulimic. Purge gives a means to prevent the negative consequence, I. E. Coming overweight. Purging is not an efficient method of weigh control, however, it does result in an immediate relieve in anxiety and the negative feelings. The decrease in anxiety offers potent negative reinforcement, a behavior by withdrawing an unpleasing consequence of not involving in the behavior, for purging. Finally it turns into the vicious cycle. The therapies for eating disorder often used are: cognitive- behavioral therapy (CB), family therapy, interpersonal therapy (PIT) and medication. However, those therapies are not given to clients at the same time.

Different therapies aim at different aspect of the disorder they suffered. CB is the frontline therapy to the disorder. It focuses on the understanding of the cognitive element of a problem, and stresses the role of behavior in maintaining and changing the way that the client think and feel (Treasure, 2003). The aim of CB helps the client to identify the cognition that enhances the abnormal problem behaviors and emotion states. And it also helps the client to re-evaluate the perception he/she has (Treasure, 2003). Thus, it will develop the insight of the client gradually.

This helps the client to establish the ‘new perception’ which is the way to identify the distorted cognitions, substituting statements and re-generate the thoughts and images, to alleviate or to get rid the problem behavior. CB is the psychotherapeutic approach to the treatment of both bulimia nervous and anorexia nervous. In CB, it underpins the edification of negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional perception relating to food, weight, shape and the cease of behavioral and physiological cycles that maintain the unhealthy eating behaviors and cognitions (Treasure, 2003).

Through the CB, the client will gain the ability to critically assess perceive benefits of maintaining his/ her present eating habits and perceived costs together with reducing his/ her binging and purging (Wells, 2008). This divides into three stages. In the first stage, the patient will be offered a diary for self-monitoring of food intake, binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior (Keel, 2005). Through the diary, it helps the patient to identify the stresses for the episode binge-eating and restrict eating behavior.

Furthermore, this provides a chance to educate the patient about the disorder they suffered and to rectify the misconceptions about dieting and cognitive and behavioral technique to help them to specify the problem and to identify alternative responses to the problem they encountered. This can help the client to reduce the abnormal behavior and the body image disturbance. Finally the third stage, patients are required to deal with dichotomous thinking in order to revert the relapse of the disorder (Keel,. 2005). Thus the progress can be maintained and the abnormal behavior can be eliminated.

Family therapy is used if patients lived together with their families. It is because the clients received insufficient and inaccurate feedback form the mother while in childhood. This results in the poor development of patient’s interruptive awareness, a distorted perception of self, and a pervasive sense of ineffectiveness (Auburn, 2002). Family therapy divides into three phases. First, parent’s efforts are reinforced to reefed their child. Therapists encourage parents to form a united front. At the same time, siblings are also invited to be supportive of the parents.

This promotes bonding between parents and sibling subsystems. Secondly, when patients show willingness to take part in referring and achieve weight gain, weight gain with small amount of conflict is allowed. Finally, the termination, when the patient has reached a healthy weight, the therapy will shift to the relationship between patient and parents. It is because the patients’ illness has formed the relationship and interactions between families (Keel, 2005). PIT is the control condition for CB (Keel, 2005). It focuses on the interpersonal intent and on building interpersonal skills.

It aims at the emotion problem of the client suffered. Changing the person’s interpersonal behavior is the aim of ‘OPT. And it is done by fostering adaptation to current interpersonal roles and situations. This helps the patient to solve the problems between the needs for independence and closeness, and having difficulties with role expectation and social problem solving (Keel, 2005). It divides into three stages. In the initial stage, this helps the patient to take the personal history and to explore the significant life events, mood and self- esteem, and relationship.

Patients are invited to combine the symptoms with life experiences and to understand the role of interpersonal problems in the events they encountered. Specific problems will be selected throughout the treatment. In the intermediate stage, techniques, like using open-ended questioning and role plays, will be used for the topics to therapy discussion (Keel, 2005). Patients are encouraged to express their feelings and to work on identified interpersonal problems. In the final stage, therapists will assist the patients to explore their future problems that may encounter and solutions (Keel, 2005).

This helps the patient to provide alternative solutions to solve the interpersonal problem. Thus, the stresses will be eliminated. This prevents the relapse of the eating disorder. For the pharmacological part, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, podia antagonists, antispasmodics and stimulants are usually prescribed to the patients. This aims to relieve their emotional problem and to promote weight gain. It is because depression inhibits the appetite for individuals. Thus, individuals increase the intake of food. As a result, the weight is gained. The primary problem is solved.

In conclude, eating disorder represents a serious form of psychopathology. This is associated with the distress and impairment in life functioning. The major influence is come from the coloratura aspect. And mass media is one of the components of coloratura promotion is better done through the mass media. This educates the knowledge and attitudes but not behavior towards public. This promotes the acceptance of heavier body. This will rise up the self-esteem to the people. With the knowledge about the cause of disorder and the mind of healthy life, this develops the insight to public.

This increases the self-awareness to them and the disease. Less people will suffer eating disorder. Once, they suffer the disorder. This creates their own in-sight to seek for help, like seeking the medical advice. Moreover, the better the health education installed to the public, the more the knowledge to the public received, especially for the parents. This is because this will not transmit the wrong concept to their child. And the development of their childhood can be better. This reduces the wrong interruptive awareness and the distorted perception of self. Thus, prevention is better than cure.