Chapter 17

What produces a variety of weather ?
The combination of Earth’s motions and energy from the sun produce variety of weather
What is climate based on ?
Climate is based on observations of weather that have been collected over many years
What is air a mixture of ?
Air is a mixture of different gases and particles
What two gases make up 99 percent of dry air ?
Nitrogen and oxygen make up 99 percent of dry air
What gas plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere ?
Carbon dioxide heat the atmosphere
What is the source of all clouds and precipitation ?
Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation
What are some particles that remain suspended for long periods of time ?
Sea salts from breaking waves,fine soil blown into the air,smoke and soot from fires,pollen and microorganisms lifted by the wind,and ash and dust from volcanic eruptions
When do oxygen atoms split into single atoms of oxygen?
They split when they absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted from the sun
What does ozone absorb ?
Ozone absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun.Our planet would be uninhabitable for many living organisms if ozone wasn’t here
What accounts for nearly half the primary pollutants by weight ?
Emissions from transportation vehicles
What are secondary pollutants ?
They are not emitted directly into the air.They form in the atmosphere when reactions take place among primary pollutants and other substances.
What are photochemical reactions ?
Reactions triggered by strong sunlight
What is atmospheric pressure ?
Atmosphere pressure is simply the weight of the air above
How many layers is the atmosphere divided into ?
4
In what layer do most weather phenomena occur ?
Troposphere
Where does most energy that drives weather and climate com from ?
Sun
What creates winds and dives the ocean’s currents ?
It is unequal heating of Earth that creates winds and drives the ocean currents.These movements transport heat from the tropics toward the poles in an attempt to balance energy differences
What is rotation ?
Rotation is the spinning of Earth on its axis.
What is revolution ?
Revolution is the movement of Earth in its orbit around the sun
What are the degrees the Earth is tilted ?
23.5 Degrees
What is the length of daylight determined by ?
It is determined by Earth’s position in orbit
What are the three mechanisms for energy transfer ?
Conduction,convention,and radiation
What can radiant energy travel through ?
Radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space
Do hot or cold objects radiate more energy ?
Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do
What is reflection ?
Reflection occurs when light bounces off an object
Does land or water heat to higher temperature faster ?
Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water
What is a coast called in which winds blow from the ocean onto the shore ?
Windward coast
What is albedo ?
Albedo is the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by any surface
What does the extent of cloud cover influence ?
By reducing the amount if incoming solar radiation,the maximum temperatures on a cloud-covered day will be lower than on a day when the clouds are absent and the sky is clear
What types of lines connects points of the same temperature ?
Insotherms