Chapter 17

What produces a variety of weather?
Combination of earth’s motions and energy from the sun
what climate based on? pg.476
climate is based on observation of weather that have been collected over many years. climate helps describe a place or region.
what is air a mixture of? pg.477
air is a mixture of different gases and particles each with its own physical properties. the composition of air varies from time to time and place to place.
what two gases make up 99 percent of a dry air? pg.477
Nitrogen and oxygen make up 99 percent of the volume of clean, dry air.
what gas play a significant role in heating the atmosphere?
carbon dioxide is an active absorbed of energy of energy given off by earth.
what is the source of all clouds and precipitation?
Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation.
what are some particles that remain suspended for long periods of time?
sea salts from breaking waves, fine solid blown into the air, smoke and soot from fire, pollen & microorganisms lifted by the wind.
when do oxygen atoms split into single atoms of oxygen?
they split when they absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted
what does the ozone absorb?
ozone absorb harmful UV radiation from the sun.
what accounts for nearby half the primary pollutants by weight?
emission from transportation vehicles.
what are secondary pollutants?
they are not emitted directly into the air.
what are photo chemical reactions?
reaction triggered by strong sunlight.
what is atmospheric pressure?
atmospheric pressure is simply the weight of the air above.
how many layer is in the atmosphere divide into.
4
in what layer do most weather phenomena occurs?
troposphere
where does most energy that drives weather and climate come from?
sun
what creates wind and drives the ocean’s currents?
it is the unequal heating of earth that creates wind and drives the ocean currents.
what is rotation?
rotation is the spinning of earth about its axis.
what is revolution?
revolution is the movement of earth in it orbit around the sun.
what are the degrees the earth is tilted?
23.5 degrees
what is the length of daylight determined by?
it is determined by earth’s position in orbit.
what can radiant energy travel through?
radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space.
do hot or cold objects radiant more energy?
hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do.
what is reflection?
reflection occurs when light bounce off an objects.
does land or water heat to higher temperature faster?
land heats more rapidly and to higher temperature than water.
what is the coast called in which winds blow from the ocean onto the shore?
windward coast
what is albedo?
albedo is the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by any surface.
What does the extent of cloud cover influence?
by reducing the amount of incoming solar radiation, the maximum temperatures on a cloud.
what type of lines connects points of the same temperature?
Isotherms