Chapter 13 Vocab and Questions

Silviculture
professional growing of trees.
Stand
How foresters have managed trees locally. It’s an informal term referring to a group of trees of the same species at the same successional stage.
Even-aged stands
all live trees began growth from seeds and roots germinating during the same year
Uneven aged stands
at least three distinct age classes for the stand of trees involved
Virgin forest/old growth forest
forest that has never been cut
2nd growth forest
a forest that has been cut and regrown
Rotation time
time between cuts of a stand
Dominants
grouping of trees (tallest, most common, and most vigorous usually grouped respectively)
Codominants
when trees in a forest share the canopy of a forest
Intermediate pressed
the growing of trees in the understory
Site quality
How foresters classify forests based on soil fertility, water supply, and local climate. It’s the maximum amount of timber a crop site can produce in a given time. It can decline with poor management.
Clear cutting
cutting of all trees in a stand at the same time
Shelterwood cutting
cutting dead and less desirable trees first, and later cutting the mature trees, leaving only the young trees.
Thinning
selectively picked trees are removed. Sometimes, even specific species of trees are removed.
Strip cutting
narrow rows of forests are cut, leaving wooded corridors whose trees provide seeds
Plantation
stand of a single species typically planted in straight rows, reflecting modern agricultural practices, and providing an alternative to pressure on natural forests.
Sustainable forestry
one resource that can be harvested at a rate that doesn’t decrease the forest’s ability of an ecosystem to continue providing same harvest rate indefinitely.
Certification of forestry
compares actual practices of specific corporations or government agencies with practices believed to be consistence with sustainability.
Park
area set aside for use by people
Nature preserve
primate purpose conservation of the resource being protection (usually a biological one)
National Park
a natural reserve set aside for protection of the beautiful landscape and wildlife that inhabit the area.
Wilderness
area undisturbed by people.
What are some of the questions/conflicts surrounding forestry? (4 questions)
1. Should a forest be used only as a resource to provide materials for people and civilization, or should a forest be used only to conserve natural ecosystems and biological diversity, including specific endangered species?
2. Can a forest serve some of both aof these functions at the same time and in the same place?
3. Can a frest be managed sustainably for either use? If so, how?
4. What rose do forests play in our global env. such ass their effects on climate?
What are some of the reasons forests are important?
They improve water supply for endangered species and other wildlife, recreation, and bird and wildlife viewing. Also sacred for spiritual and aesthetic reasons.
What is the goal of silviculture?
to maximize the yield in the harvest of a single resource
What are the two transportation systems connecting leaves and roots in a tree? What does each do?
Phloem–on the inside of the living part of the bark-transports sugars and other organic compounds down to stems and roots.
Xylem–father inside–transports water and inorganic molecules upward to leaves. Water transported upward by sun powered pump.
What are some of the tree niches?
Shade-tolerance and shade-intolerance
What does the understanding of tree niches help us do?
determine where we might best plant them a commercial crop and where they might best contribute to biological conservation or to landscape beauty.
What are the layers of a tree trunk?
outer bark, inner bark, cambium, pith, pith rays, and heartwood.