Chapt. 17 & 19 Study Guide

How does weather and climate differ?
Weather – events occurring now
Climate – weather that occurs year long
List the items found in the atmosphere along with its percentage.
Nitrogen – 78%
Oxygen – 21#
other gases – 2%
Explain the difference between primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. Give examples of each.
Primary Pollutant – pollutants that enter the atmosphere from a visible source
Secondary Pollutant – pollutants that enter the atmosphere through other methods
Where is ozone found? What is its purpose?
Ozone is in the stratosphere. Its purpose is to lock in heat.
What happens to pressure and temperature as you increase in altitude?
Pressure and temperature decreases.
Explain the differences between rotation and revolution.
Rotation – the spinning of a body on its axis (day and night)
Revolution – the movement of a body around another body (365.25 days)
List the layers of the atmosphere from the Earth’s surface upward.
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
Explain the difference between solstice and equinox. List the dates for spring and fall equinox as well as the summer and winter solstice.
Solstice – winter (shorter days and longer nights); summer (longer days and shorter nights)
Equinox – day and night are equal in length (fall and spring)
Differentiate between the tree ways heat is transferred.
Conduction, radiation, and convection
What happens to solar radiation?
Solar Radiation – 50% is absorbed on earth, 20% is absorbed in clouds, 30% is reflected off clouds
Explain the difference between reflection and scattering.
Reflection – rays bouncing off clouds
Scattering – rays are moving in all directions
List the ways temperature can vary on Earth.
Land hears up quick and cools quickly, water heats up slowly and cools slowly, as you move up a mountain temperatures cool off. as you move up in altitude temperatures cool down, clouds help lock in the temperature at night and reflect off radiation during the day.
How do temperatures vary form land to sea?
Land heats up quick and cools quickly, water heats up slowly and cools slowly
What is albedo and how does it change from day to night?
clouds help lock in the temperatures at night and reflect off radiation during the day
How does altitude affect temperature?
as you move up in altitude, temperatures cool down
Explain air pressure. What unit do we measure pressure?
air pressure in a force exerted in all directions, millibars
What is a barometer? List the two types.
tool measuring air pressure, mercury and aneroid
How does wind form?
sun and pressure differences
Winds move from a ____ to ____ pressure system?
high to low
Describe an isobar. What happens if they are closely spaced together? Far apart?
isobars are lines of equal pressure, closely spaced lines are low pressure and widely spaced lines are high pressure
Describe a high and low pressure system. Include weather conditions too.
high pressure system – good weather (anti-cyclone moving clockwise)
low pressure system – stormy weather (cyclone moving counterclockwise)
What direction does the Coriolis effect spin in the Northern Hemisphere?
counterclockwise
How does friction affect wind?
slows wind down
What direction does the jet stream travel in the northern hemisphere?
west to east
where do you find friction at its strongest point?
in mountain areas
Describe the movement of cyclones and anticyclones.
cyclones move counterclockwise, anti-cyclones move clockwise
Describe the movement of trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies.
trade winds – move east to west
westerlies – move west to east
polar easterlies – move east to west
Explain the difference between land and sea breezes. How are they different in the day as to the night?
land breezes occur at night where wind moves from the land to sea, sea breezes occur during the day where wind moves from sea to land
What instrument is used to determine the direction of the wind?
wind vane
How do you classify the direction of the wind?
by the direction it came from
Describe the difference between El Nino and La Nina.
El Nino – the periodic warming of the oceans
La Nina – the periodic cooling of the oceans