Chaper 12 Flash Cards

soil
the mixture of disintegrated organic matter
parent material
the base geological material in a particular location
bedrock
the mass of solid rock that makes up the earths crust
weathering
the physical and chemical processes that break down rocks and minerals into smaller particles
soil horizons
a distinct layer of soil
soil profile
accross-section of all the soil horizons in a specific soil
loam
soil that is approximitly equal parts, sand, clay,and silt)
soil degradation
the deterioration of those characteristics of soil needed for plant growth or other ecosystem services
overgrazing
allowing animals to eat so much of the plant cover in a field or pasture that the plants cannot regrow
desertification
a loss of more than percent in the productivity of soil due to erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, drought, or other factors
irrigation
using a source other than precipitation to water crops
salinization
the build up of salts in the surface layers of soil
pesticides
chemicals used to kill organisms that attack or compete with plants that humans value
traditional agriculture
a type of farming that relies on human and animal power along with hand tools and nonmotorized machines
yield
the amount of a crop produced in a given area
industrial agriculture
a type of farming that relies on technology and chemicals to increase yields and reduce costs
green revolution
the intro of new technologies, crop varieties, and farming practices to the developing world
biological pest control
the use of organisms to battle pests and weeds
integrated pest management
the use of both biological and chemical methods to control safely and economically
pollinators
an insect or animal that transfers pollen from one plant to another