chap 15 apes

soil
the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles
humus
the organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms
illuviation
the introduction of salts into one soil horizon from another by percolating water
soil profile
a vertical section of soil from the ground surface to the parent rock
soil texture
the relative proportion of particles or it is the relative percentage by weight of the three soil separates
weathering
wear away or change the appearance or texture of something by long exposure to the air
soil salinization
Salination can be caused by natural processes such as mineral weathering or by the gradual withdrawal of an ocean
conservation tillage
Conservation tillage is a tillage system that creates a suitable soil environment for growing a crop and that conserves soil, water and energy resources mainly through the reduction in the intensity of tillage, and retention of plant residues.
organic fertilizers
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter
commercial inorganic fertilizer
fertilizer that releases nitrogen quickly into the soil
agroforestry
agriculture incorporating the cultivation and conservation of trees
desertification
a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife