Ch 9,10

Crude Birth Rate
Total number of births per 1000
Crude Death Rate
Total number of deaths per 1000
What is the continent with the highest CBR and CDR?
Africa
What are the 3 most populous countries? 
1. China
2. India
3. USA
What are the 2 most useful indicators of a country’s health?
Infant Mortality rate and life expectancy
Infant Mortality Rate
death of children per 1000 before their 1st birthday
Replacement Level Fertility;
Number of children needed to replace parents
Why is the Replacement Level Fertility higher than 2?
Because of infant mortality
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Average number of children women have
What is Total Fertility Rate most useful for?
For predicting future population change
What is the leaing cause of infant mortality?
Malnutrition
Baby Boomers
Will strain social security
Strain medicare as they age
Influence government by demanding goods and services
What was the average TFR in 2006?
2.7-2.9
What percent of births outnumber deaths?
59%
What percent of the births came from illegal and legal immigration?
41%
What causes a baby bust?
Desired gender (gender imbalance)
Abortion
Contraception
Delayed marriage
How much of the world’s land do women possess?
<1%
How much of the world’s income do women receive?;
10%
What is the number of children a woman has affected by?
Having rights
Education
Employment
Infant deaths
Availability of pension
Contraception
What are the 3 age structure categories?
Prereproductive
Reproductive
Postreproductive
What countries have a negative growth rate?
Germany, Bulgaria, Sweden
Demographic Trap
Stuck in transition, population growth overwhelms economic growth
Preindustrial
high birth/death rate, high infant mortality
Transitional
Birth rates still high
Industrial
Birth rate decreases, most developed countries are at this place
Postindustrial
Birth/death rates are equal
How are grey wolves keystone species?
vegetation reestablishes, species diversity expands, food for scavengers
What are the use values?
Instrumental and intrinsic value
What are the nonuse values?
Existence, aesthetic, bequest values
Instrumental Value
Economic and ecological services
Intrinsic Value
Value based on existence, regardless of usefulness to humans
Existence Value
Satisfaction of knowing it exists
Aesthetic value
appreciate nature/beauty
Bequest
protect for future generations
What is the most common use of wood?
Fuel
Old Growth Forests
Have not been seriously disturbed for several hundreds of years
What are snags/fallen trees important?
Create habitat, recycle nutrients, holds soil
Second growth forests
Trees resulting from natural secondary succession. Tree farms are second growth
Tree Farms
planted stands of a particular tree species (monoculture)
Deforestation
Runoff or eroded soil into aquatic systems, premature extinction of species within specialized niches, regional climate change from extensive clearing, release of CO2 into atmosphere
Building ___ leads to fragmentation
roads
Selective Cutting
trees can be harvested individually from diverse forests
Clear cutting
an entire forest can be cut down
Selective Cutting
Portions of forest cut out, follows curve of mountain
Substainable Forestry
Selective/strip cutting. Reduce roads into uncut forests, protecting old-growth, reduce fragmentation
Certified Sustainable Forestry
Cutting doesn’t exceed regeneration, 6% of world’s forests are certified, leave snags
Surface Fires
Burns only the surface litter
Crown Fires
Burns very hot, moves fast
Ground fires
burns the humus
Prescribed Fires
set on fire on purpose
Fire Management
set controlled surface fires, allow fires to burn if they don’t threaten life/property
Healthy Forest Restoration Act
Allows timber companies to cut medium and large trees in 71% of the national forests. must clear away smaller, more fire-prone trees and underbrush
Kenaf
For paper. No fertilizer, no pesticide, more fiber, less energy but lots of money
Where does most of the world’s hardwood come from?
Tropical rain forests
Hardwoods
broad leafs whose seeds are in fruit
What continent has the fastest tropical deforestation
South America
What are the consequences of burning rain forests?
Climate change, reduces rainfall

Why? CO2 sink, transpiration

Rain forest becomes savanna

Neem Tree
treatment of many diseases, lumber, fuel, spermicide

in India

Basic causes for deforestation
Poverty, population growth
Secondary causes for desforestation
oil drilling, mining, cattle ranching, cash crops
Cash Crops
Coffee, bananas, cocoa, nuts, etc
Fair Trade
Allows a fair return to the growers for their work
What are the two grasslands?
Natural grasslands (rangelands) and managed grasslands (pastures)
Overgrazing
soil compaction, invasive species, lowers water holding capacity, erosion
Sustain grassland productivity
Controlling the number/distribution of livestock, restoring degraded rangeland
Restoration
Trying yo return to original state
How to Restore Grasslands
Protect the riparian areas, suppress invasive species, replant native grass, rotate watering holes
What is the national forest managed by?
US forest service
What is national wildlife refuges manged by?
US Fish and Wildlife
National Forest vs. National Park
National Forest: can do more activities
National Park: restricted use
National park system
Protect habitats, provide recreation from human activities. Humans are temporary visitors
National Wildlife and Scenic River System
1968 to preserve certain rivers from human activities
What is bad about habitat corridors?
Makes it easier for invasive species to get in
How can we make conservation more appealing?
Make conversation more profitable, initiate restoration, prevent damage