Ch. 4 Land and Water Use

Green Revolution
The industrialization of agricultural technologies.
agriculture
applies to both crops and livestock
malnutrition
people don’t get enough of their daily nutrients
undernourishment
people don’t get enough calories
over-nutrition
recieving too many calories
traditional agriculture
uses human & animal power and simple tools
substistence agriculture
agriculture conducted by a family for its own consumption & use; not enough for others
industrialized agriculture or conventional agriculture
large-scale agriculture; for many people to eat; uses fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation, seeds, monoculture, & human power
Dust Bowl
over-farming and over-grazing caused top-soil erosion + drought + stock market crash
monoculture
growing of one crop excessively
golden rice
GMO, rice with vitamin A (missing nutrient in many developing countries)
Ice-minus Strawberries
GMO, frost-resistant strawberries
Pros of GMOs
feeding more people; foods resistant to weather; build crops that use less fertilizer & water
Cons of GMOs
Unknown long-term effects; destructive of native crops; pests & weeds growing resistant to seeds w/ built-in pesticides
seed banks
preserve many seed types to prevent genetic diversity & safeguarding our food supply
drip irrigation
the most efficient watering system; water drips directly onto plants; reduces salinization
salinization
salts accumulate on soil surface, which reduces crop productivity
No-till farming
farmland only mildly disturbed when prepared for crops; more crop residue is returned to soil
Crop rotation
allows nutrients to be returned to soil and minimizes depletion of certain nutrients
intercropping
planting alternating crops in a field; reduces impact of a disease or crop-specific insects; reduces nutrient depletion & erosion
shelterbelts
tall plants/trees planted along edges to reduce wind .:. soil erosion
contour farming
plowing rows across a hill, following contour lines; better trap water and reduce erosion
terracing
used on steep mountain slopes; minimize erosion and retain water in areas otherwise unsuitable for crop-growing
organic farming
no chemicals or pesticides are used
fungicides
kill fungi
herbicides
kill plants and weeds
insecticides
kill bugs
Pros of Pesticides
increase crop yields; reduce spread of disease (malaria); decrease crop loss
Cons of Pesticides
pests develop resistance; kill bugs that pollinate; toxic; expensive
DDT (dicholoro-diphenyltricholoethane)
used as a pesticide until 1973; banned due to detrimental effects on human nervous systems & wildlife
Integrated Pest Management
uses knowledge about pest’s life cycle & environmental interactions & controls biologically, crop rotation, & chems when nec.
Feedlots
factory farms; CAFOs; fed high energy foods to fatten livestock
livestock
domesticated animals raised for profit
timber plantations
monocultural; one species planted & all are harvested at the same time (even-aged); limits habitat for other organisms; can be used to stimulate secondary growth
secondary growth
forms when old-growth is cut down & there’s new growth
Cons of deforestation
loss of biodiversity; release of C; erosion; decr. in soil nutrients; desertification
Pros of deforestation
promotes economy; agricultural needs; generates money
clear-cutting
taking all trees down in an area and leaving nothing standing; destroys habitat & targets old growth
shelterwood system
leave low # of full-grown trees to create shelter for emergent seedlings; cutting done on regular basis w/ select trees taken
seed-tree
only mature/seed-producing trees are left standing, providing seed nec for regrowth
selection system
most trees left standing while a few are harvested from an area at a time
US Forest Service
established in 1905 to manage and conserve nation’s forest; manages timber for use & ecosystem preservation
US National Forest System
created in response to declining timber resources; managed by USFS
National Forest Management Act
passed in 1976; directs every nat’l forest to have resource management plan
rangelands
large expanses of undeveloped land containing mainly grasses & shrubs; suitable for livestock grazing
Farmer-Centered Agricultured Resource Management (FARM)
UN program to help farmers in 8 Asian countries use sustainable farming practices
Farmland Protection Law
passed 1994 (China) states that businesses building on farmland had to create equal farmland somewhere else
canal
created by digging and expanding on an already existant stream; creating it from dry land where no water source existed; or making one parallel to stream or river
Federal-Aid Highway Act
started in 1944; approved nat’l system of highways
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956
mandated a uniform highway design, taking into account future traffic levels
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
before a highway is built, an ___ has to be filled out to assess potential env’l impacts from development
29% of US Land
managed by 4 federal agencies: BLM, NPS, FWS in US Dept Interior & Forest Service in US Dept Agriculture
National Park Service
est 1916; manages 294 natl parks, preserving wildlife, ecosystems, & the historical value of the lands
wetlands
terrestrial areas with water-saturated soils; marshes, swamps, bogs
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Import
protects wetlands and their resources on an international level
National Forsts
US federal forests & woodlands; can be used by public and for commercial use; recreational & commerical uses conflict often
National Grasslands
est to preserve grasslands;used for grazing & resource extraction & recreational hunting & recreation; managed by Dept of Agriculture
United Nations Environment Programme
oversees most international conservation efforts
surface mining
remove soil and rock covering mineral deposits; used when deposits are relatively close to surface; hole left usually refilled with original soil & rock
mountaintop removal
tops of mtns blasted off to access resource; common in coal mine of Appalachian Mtns
placer mining
uses water to seperate heavier materials from lighter mud and debris; used to extract deposits in riverbeds
open-pit mining
digging to reach desired source; quarries
subsurface mining
create shafts deep underground to extract resources
manganese nodules
unique creation of the benthic environment; beginning to be mined, which is very destructive to fragile structures
reclamation
restoration of land after mining
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund)
the cleaning of mining sites with hazardous wastes; the job of the federal govt and paid for by tax on chemical/petroleum industries
General Mining Act of 1972
gave people right to prospect on public lands if complies with mining regs
Bottom Trawling
dragging net along bottom of the ocean to capture organisms; stirs up sediment & decreases amt of sun; many restrictions on how, when, & where they can be used
Long-lining
dragging long fishing line with baited hooks along its length behind a boat or attached to an anchor; commonly accidentally catches birds and sea turtles
Drift Netting
dragging large nets through water to catch fish; large amount of bycatch; use is reg’d in some regions or banned in other
Aquaculture
alt to fishing; raises both freshwater & marine aquatic species in monitored environments
Marine-Protected Areas (MPAs)
created to reduce fishing demands on marine organisms living within boundaries of space; most allow for some fishing & harvesting; at least 400
marine reserve
restrictive MPA; doesn’t allow human interference w ecosystem
Green tax
placed on activities that are considered harmful for the environment
permit trading
max on amt of pollution an industry can emit and companies given permits for amt they’re allowed to pollute
world bank
created in 1944 to help developing nations in need of financial/technical assistance to eliminate poverty
Tragedy of Commons
if everyone owns it, no one will care about it; written by Hardin in 1968
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
aims to gradually reduces air pollution; including pollution that travels across borders
Convention for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
est to protect marine life & ecosystems in & close to Antarctica; part of Antarctic Treaty System
Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes & Their Disposal
controls transport of hazardous waste between nations, esp. developed to less developed