Ch.3, 8, 9, 10 Test

Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel?
P waves
What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere?
Transform fault boundary
Why do earthquakes often cause damaging fires?
Earthquakes vibrations can break gas lines, water lines, and electrical lines.
Tensional stresses commonly cause which of the following?
Normal Faults
What volcanic feature is illustrated at A in Figure 10-2?
Continental volcanic arc
What type of plate boundary resulted in the volcanic activity illustrated in Figure 10-2?
Oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary
A fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall is a…..
Normal fault
What type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments?
Cinder cone
The particles produced in volcanic eruptions are called….
Pyroclastic material
What feature is labeled A in Figure 10-1?
Pipe
What type of volcano is illustrated in Figure 10-1?
Composite cone
A tectonic plate consists of….
The crust and uppermost mantle
Which of the following can be produced at an ocean-continental convergent boundary?
Continental volcanic arc
Earthquakes are usually associated with….
Faults
What is the most abundant gas associated with volcanic activity?
Water Vapor
An earthquakes epicenter is….
The place on the surface directly above the focus.
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the….
Measurements of the amplitude of the largest seismic waves
Which of the following factors helps determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or relatively quiet?
all the above
A lava flow with a surface of rough,jagged blocks and sharp,angular projections is called a(n)….
aa flow
The broad,slightly dome shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are….
Shield volcanoes
Faults in which movement is mainly horizontal and parallel to the trend of the fault surface are called….
Strike-slip faults
In Figure 3-1, what process or processes would be occurring in the part of the rock cycle labeled E?
Compaction and cementation
In Figure 3-1, what type of rock should occur in the part of the rock cycle labeled B?
Igneous
In Figure 3-1, what type of rock should occur in the part of the rock cycle labeled F?
Sedimentary
According to the theory of plate tectonics,…..
The lithosphere is divided into plates
The Hawaiian Islands were formed when the Pacific Plate moved over…..
A hot spot
A tsunami can occur when there is vertical movement at a fault under….
The ocean floor
Overall, which seismic waves are the most destructive?
Surface waves
What forms when one oceanic plate is forced beneath another plate?
A subduction zone
When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the…..
Focus
The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called….
Pangaea
Through which earth layer are S waves not transmitted?
Outer core
One kind of evidence that suppoets Wegener’s hypothesis is that….
Fossils of the same organisms have been found on different continents
Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of the rock?
Magma
The Himalayas in South Asia are an example of what type of plate boundary?
Convergent continental-continental
Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks?
Earth’s interior
Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt know as the….
Ring of Fire
What is the name of the major strike-slip fault in California?
San Andreas Fault
According to Figure 8-1,when will the first P wave be received,if an earthquake epicenter is approximately 1800 kilometers from the seismic station?
3.5 minutes after the earthquake
According to Figure 8-1,what is the distance between the seismic station and an earthquake epicenter,if the first S wave arrives 4.0 minutes after the first P wave?
2500 kilometers
What are the primary factors that describe whether a volcano erupts explosively or relatively quietly?
Magma composition, magma temperature, and the amount of dissolved gases in the magma
Describe how an Igneous rock becomes a Sedimentary Rock….
Rocks at Earth’s surface are broken down into smaller pieces called sediments
List three lines of evidence that supported the hypothesis of continental drift….
Fossil organisms found on different landmasses, shorelines looks like they fit together, and several mountain belts end at one coastline
Compare and contrast the movements and forces on a normal fault and a reverse fault….
Normal fault occurs when the hanging wall block moves down relative to the foot-wall block. Reverse fault in which the hanging wall block moves up relative to the foot wall block.
Describe how P waves and S waves more and affect the movement of the material they pass over or through….
S-waves shakes particles at right angles to their direction of travel. Moves slower than P waves. P-waves push and pull rocks in the direction the wave travels. Can travel through solid, liquid, and gas. Is the fastest wave.