Ch.17 & 19 questions

How does weather and climate differ?
Weather-events occurring now; climate-weather that occurs year long
What items are found in the atmosphere along with its percentage?
Nitrogen-78%, Oxygen-21%, other gases-2%
What’s the difference between primary pollutants and secondary pollutants?
Primary pollutant are pollutants that enter the atmosphere from a visible source, and secondary pollutant are pollutant that enter the atmosphere through other methods
Where is ozone found? What is its purpose?
Ozone is in the stratosphere and its purpose is to lock in heat
What happens to pressure and temperature as you increase in altitude?
Pressure and temperature decreases
What’s the difference between rotation and revolution?
Rotation-spinning on its axis (day and night) and revolution-revolving around a body (365.25 days)
What are the layers of the atmosphere in order from the Earth’s surface upward?
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
What’s the difference between solstice and equinox?
solstice-winter (shorter day and longer night), summer (longer day and shorter night), equinox-day and night are equal in length (fall and spring)
Differentiate between the three ways heat is transferred?
Conduction, radiation, convection
What happens to solar radiation?
Solar radiation-50% is absorbed on earth, 20% is absorbed in clouds, 30% is reflected off clouds
Explain the difference between reflection and scattering?
Reflection-rays bouncing off clouds, scattering-rays are moving in all direction
List the ways temperature can vary on Earth
Land heats up quick and cools quickly, water heats up slowly and cools down, clouds help lock in the temperature at night and reflect off radiation during the day
How do temperature vary from land to sea?
Land heats up quick and cools quickly, water heats up slowly and cools slowly
What is albedo and how does it change from day to night?
Clouds help lock in the temperature at night and reflect off radiation during the day
How does altitude affect temperatures?
As you move up in altitude temperatures cool down
Explain air pressure. What unit do we measure pressure?
Air pressure in a force exerted in all directions
What is a barometer? List the two types?
Tool measuring air pressure, mercury and aneroid
How does wind form?
Sun and pressure differences
Winds move from a…… to …… pressure systems.
High to low
describe an isobar. What happens if they are closely spaced together? Far apart?
isobars are lines of equal pressure, closely spaced lines are low pressure and widely spaced lines are high pressure
Describe a high and low pressure system. Include weather conditions too.
High pressure system-good weather (anti-cyclone moving clockwise moving clockwise), low pressure system-stormy weather (cyclone-counterclockwise)
What direction does the Coriolis effect spin in the northern hemisphere?
Counterclockwise
How does Friction affect wind?
Slows wind down
What direction does the jet stream travel in the Northern hemisphere?
West to east
Where do you find friction at its strongest point?
In mountains areas
Describe the movement of cyclones and anticyclones.
Cyclones move counterclockwise, anti-cyclones move clockwise
Describe the movement of trade winds, westerlies and poplar easterlies.
Trade winds move east to west, westerlies-move west to east,polar easterlies move east to west
Explain the differences between land and sea breezes. How are they different in the day as to the night?
Land breezes occur at night where wind moves from the land to sea,sea breezes occur during the day where wind moves from the sea to land
What instrument is used to determine the direction of the wind?
Wind vane
How do you classify the direction of the wind?
By the direction it came from
What instrument is used to measure the speed of wind?
Anemometer