BIO 105 Module 4 Flash Cards

Competition
Multiple organisms seeking the same limited resource
Resource Partitioning
Competing species coexisting after adapting over evolutionary time as natural selecting favors individuals that use slightly different resources or that uses shared resources in different ways
Predation
Species that hunts, captures, kills, and consume individuals of another species
Parasitism
Relationship in which one organism depends on another organism for nourishment or another benefit while doing the host harm
Herbivory
Animals that feed on the tissues of plant
Mutualism
Relationship between two or more species that benefit from interacting with one another
Symbiosis
Physically close association between interacting species- may be mutualistic or parasitic
Community
Assemblage or populations of organisms living in the same area at the same time
Trophic Level
Rank in feeding hierarchy
Biomass
Collective mass of living matter
Food Chain
Linear series of feeding relationships
Food Web
Visual map of energy flow that shows many paths along which energy passes as organisms consume another
Keystone Species
Species that has a strong or wide-reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundance
Keystone Species
Species that has a strong or wide-reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundance
Trophic Cascade
Phenomenon in which keystone species indirectly promote populations of organisms at low trophic levels by keeping species at intermediate trophic level in check
Disturbance
An event that has rapid and drastic impacts on environmental conditions
Resistance
A community that resists change and remains stable despite a disturbance
Resilience
A community that changes in response to a disturbance but later returns to its original state
Succession
Predictable series of changes that occur after a severe enough disturbance that eliminates all or most of the species in a community
Primary Succession
A biotic community is built from scratch after a severe disturbance that resulted in no vegetation or soil life left in a community that had occupied the site
Secondary Succession
A severe disturbance that dramatically alters an existing community but does not destroy all life and organic matter
Pioneer Species
Species that arrive first and colonize the new substrate
Phase Shift
The character of the community fundamentally changes- also called a regime shift
Novel Communities
Novel mixtures of plants and animals and have no analog or precedent- also called no-analog communities
Introduced Species
Non-native animals introduced into a community by humans
Invasive Species
Introduced species that spread widely and dominate a community
Restoration Ecology
Ecologists that research the historical conditions of ecological communities that existed before our industrialized civilization altered them
Ecological Restoration
On-the-ground efforts to restore altered areas to an earlier condition before human interaction
Biome
Major regional complex of similar communities
Climate Diagrams
Depiction of information on temperature and precipitation- also called climatographs
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Terrestrial biome characterized by broadleaf trees that shed their leaves in the fall- mid-latitude forests that occur in Europe and Eastern China as well as Eastern North America
Temperate Grassland
Terrestrial biome characterized by extreme differences in winter and summer temperature and less rainfall- Westward of the Great Lakes
Temperate Rainforest
Terrestrial biome characterized by heavy rainfall, tall coniferous trees, shaded and deep forest interiors- Found in the Pacific Northwest region
Tropical Rainforest
Terrestrial biome characterized by year-round rain and uniformly high temperatures- found in Central America, South America, Southeast Asia, West Africa and other tropical regions
Tropical Dry Forest
Terrestrial biome characterized by tropical areas that is warm year-round but rainfall is lower and highly seasonal- Found in India, Africa, South America, and Northern Australia
Savanna
Terrestrial biome characterized by dry tropical regions that consist of interspersed clusters of acacias or other trees- found across stretches of Africa, South America, Australia, India, and other dry tropical regions
Desert
Terrestrial biome characterized by sparse rainfall, mostly less than 10 in. precipitation per year that occurs mostly in isolated storm months or years apart- Located in the Africa’s Sahara and the Sonoran Arizona area
Tundras
Terrestrial biome characterized by cold winters with little daylight and summers with lengthy days, landscape of lichens and low, scrubby vegetation without trees- located in high latitudes in Northern Russia, Canada, and Scandinavia
Boreal Forest
Terrestrial biome characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers- also called tiaga or the northern coniferous forest and is located across much of Canada, Alaska, Russia and Scandinavia
Chaparrals
Terrestrial biome characterized by densely thicketed evergreen shrubs located in the Mediterranean
Pollination
Mutualistic relationship in which interaction vital to agriculture and our food supply occurs by free-living organisms encounter each other potentially only once