BIO 105 Module 2 Flash Cards

System
Network of relationships among parts, elements, or components that interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information.
Lithosphere
The rock and sediment beneath our feet; the planet’s uppermost mantle and crust
Atmosphere
Air surrounding our planet
Hydrosphere
All water on the planet
Biosphere
All living and nonliving organisms on the planet
Feedback loop
Circular process in which a system’s output can serve as an input to the same system
Negative Feedback Loop
Output that results from a system moving in one direction acts as imput that moves the system in the other direction
Dynamic Equilibrium
When processes move in opposing directions at equivalent rates so that their effects balance out when in a system stabilized by negative feedback
Homeostasis
The tendency of a system to maintain relatively constant of stable internal conditions
Positive Feedback Loop
Driving a system further toward an extreme rather than stabilizing the system
Watershed
Area of land from which water drains into a river
Airshed
Geographic area that produces air pollutants likely to end up in a waterway
Runoff
Precipitation that flows over land and enters waterways
Hypoxia
Depletion of oxygen in water
Eutrophication
Over enrichment of nutrients that cause blooms of algae and increased production of organic matter which leads to ecosystem degradation
Matter
All material in the universe that has mass and occupies space
Chemistry
Study of types of matter and their interactions
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter can be transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed
Element
Fundamental type of matter that is a chemical substance with a given set of properties that cannot be broken down into substances with other properties in chemical reactions
Atom
Smallest units that maintain the chemical properties of the element
Proton
Positively charges particles in an atom’s nucleus
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom’s nucleus
Neutron
Particles in the nuclei that lack electric charge
Electron
Negatively charges particles that surround an atom’s nucleus
Hydrogen
Element especially abundant in water
Oxygen
Element especially abundant in air
Silicon
Element especially abundant in Earth’s crust
Nitrogen
Element especially abundant in air
Carbon
Element especially abundant in living organisms
Nutrients
Elements that organisms need to survive
Isotopes
Atoms with differing numbers of neutrons
Ions
Atoms that have gained or lost electrons and became electrically charged atoms or combinations of atoms
Molecules
Two or more atoms bonded together
Chemical Formula
Formula used to indicate the type and number of atoms in a molecule
Compound
Molecule composed of atoms from two ore more different elements
Water
One oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
Carbon Dioxide
Compound consisting of one carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms
Ionic Bonds
Ions of differing charge bind with one another to form compounds
Covalent Bonds
Bonds that lack electrical charge and combine by “sharing” electrons
Solutions
Elements, molecules, and compounds that come together without chemically bonding
Methane
Colorless gas produced primarily by anaerobic decomposition
Ozone
Molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen
Neutral on the pH Scale
Equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions
Acidic on the pH Scale
Concentration of hydrogen ions is greater than hydroxide ions
Basic on the pH Scale
Hydroxide ion concentration is higher than hydrogen ion concentration
pH Scale
Scale that quantifies the acidity of basicity of a solution
Organic Compounds
Carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds and may include other elements
Inorganic Compounds
Compounds that lack carbon-carbon bonds
Hydrocarbons
Organic compound that contains only atoms of carbon and hydrogen
Polymers
Long chains of repeated molecules
Macromolecules
Building blocks of life
Protein
Long chains of organic molecules called, amino acids, that serve functions in living cells including structural support, energy storage, immune system functions, hormones, and enzymes
Nucleic Acids
Direct the production of proteins by acids composed of nucleotides,a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Genes
Regions of DNA that Code for particular proteins that perform particular functions
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars and large molecules comprised of chemically bonded simple sugars
Glucose
Fuels living cells and serves as the base for complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates
Used to build structure
Starch
Energy storage compound
Chitin
Structural component of shells
Cellulose
Most abundant organic compound on Earth found in the cell walls of plants
Lipids
Chemically diverse group of compounds that do not dissolve in water
Cells
The most basic unit of organismal organization
Energy
Intangible that can change the position, physical composition, and temperature of matter
Potential Energy
The energy of position
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Chemical Energy
Potential energy held in the bonds between atoms
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can change from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The nature of energy will change from a more ordered stat to a less ordered state if no force counteracts this tendency
Autotrophs
Organizers that use the sun’s direct radiation to produce their own food- also called producers
Photosynthesis
Process that converts the sun’s light energy into chemical energy
Chlorophyll
Light-absorbing pigment
Chloroplasts
Cells organelles in autotrophs
Light Reactions
Chemical reactions from solar energy
Calvin Cycle
Light reactions that produce energy molecules which forms sugars
Cellular Respiration
Chemical energy created by photosynthesis
Heterotrophs
Organisms that gain their energy by feeding on the tissues of other organisms- also called Consumers
Ecosystem
All living and nonliving entities that occur and interact in a particular area at a particular time
Estuary
Body of water where rivers flow into the ocean thus mixing fresh and salt water
Primary Production
Conversion of solar energy to the energy of chemicals bonds
Gross Primary Production
Total amount of chemical energy produces by autotrophs
Net Primary Production
Energy that remains after respiration
Biomass
Productivity
The rate at which autotrophs convert energy to biomass
Net Primary Productivity
Amount producers convert from solar energy to biomass
Landscape Ecology
Broad-scale approach to ecology
Conservation Biologists
Scientists who study the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity
Model
Simplified representation of a complicated natural process
Ecological Modeling
Practice of constructing and testing models that aim to explain and predict how ecological systems function
Ecosystem Services
Nutrient Cycles
Circulation of elements or molecules through the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere- also called the biogeochemical cycle
Source
Reservoir that releases more material than it accepts
Sink
Reservoir that accepts more materials than it releases
Flux
Rate at which materials move between reservoirs
Reservoir
Collection of nutrients- also called pool
Residence Time
Amount of time nutrients remain in each reservoir
Hydrologic Cycle
The flow of water in liquid, gaseous, and solid forms
Evaporation
Water moving from surface water and moist soil to the atmosphere
Transpiration
Release of water vapor into the atmosphere by plants through their leaves
Precipitation
When water vapor condenses and falls as rain or snow
Infiltration
The process in which water soaks down through soil and rock
Aquifers
Underground reservoirs of water
Groundwater
Water found beneath layers of soil
Water Table
Uppermost level of groundwater held in an aquifer
Carbon Cycle
The routes carbon atoms take through the environment
Nitrogen Cycle
The route nitrogen atoms take through the nested networks of environmental systems
Nitrogen Fixation
Can be accomplished in two ways: by the intense energy of lightning strikes of by types of nitrogen fixing bacteria
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria
Bacteria that inhabit the top layer of soil
Nitrification
Conversion of ammonium ions into nitrite ions then into nitrate ions
Denitrifying Bacteria
Bacteria that converts nitrates in the soil or water into gas
Denitrification
Release of nitrogen back into the atmosphere as gas
Industrial Fixation
Man-made discovery of how to fix nitrogen on massive scales
Phosphorus Cycle
Nutrient cycle consisting of the routes that phosphorus atoms take through the nested networks of environmental systems
Sedimentary Rocks
Largest reservoir in the phosphorus cycle