Bearing anylisis

The martinets transformation occurs only when the austenite is super cooled by rapid cooling (quenching) to low temperature at which diffusion possesses become Impossible.

In contrast to the pearlier and Intermediate transformation, the martinets transformation Is of diffusion less nature I. E. It Is not accompanied with diffusive displacements of carbon and iron in the rearrangement of the precipitate of arbor from the solution. This leads to the distortion of the cubic lattice that makes it tetragonal. 2 The main feature of the martinets transformation, distinguishing it from transformation that progress by ordinary crystallization kinetics, is the fact that is has no phase of nucleation and growth of crystals of the new phase.

The transformation is accomplished by a shift, I. E. An ordinary cooperative transfer of atoms from the austenite to martinets. The atoms are not Interchanged in re arrangement of the lattice, but, are only displaced by distances not exceeding the inter atomic ones. The material crystals are shapes like plates narrowed at the edges. Heat treatment is a process which greatly improves performance of tool.

Cryogenic treatment is a process that helps to improve some of the desirable characteristics of tool steel due to 1 . Retained as a structure getting transformed into martinets, a hard structure. 2. Fine precipitation of alloying carbides. The present work concentrates on analyzing the residual stresses. The finite element analysis is carried out for tool steels incorporating the temperature dependent material properties and bilinear cinematic hardening procedure. The result shows that the surface stresses are almost compressive. And MM steel milling cutter indicated that the thermal equilibrium is reached at 4000 seconds.

The time history evinces that the final maximum deformation for multi-point tool is Fauna Eng, Oshkosh Attaching, Ryo Gamma and Hide soma from Moran Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mosquito, Japan eave done cryogenic technical study. The wear resistance of alloy tool steel after cold at 223 K and after cryogenic treatment at 93 K has been investigated. The wear resistance of steels after cryogenic treatment is superior to that of cold treatment. The effect of cryogenic treatment is superior to that of cold treatment.

The effect of cryogenic treatment on the macrostructure were also studied by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy methods. Unlike cold treatment, cryogenic treatment includes preferential precipitation of fine 4 n-carbide instead of e-carbides. These fine carbide particles enhance the strength and toughness of the martinets matrix and then increase the wear resistance. The formation mechanism of fine n-carbide is analyzed. Cartoon Ltd is an industrial services and manufacturing company located near Edmonton, Alberta.

They specialize in a one-time permanent metal treatment process commonly known as cryogenic processing. The cartoon vary cold process dramatically reduces consumption of perishable tools or replacement parts and substantially reduces machine down time attributable to tool or parts replacement. Cartoon is a major manufacturer and Global exporter of cryogenic processing equipment. Cryogenic treatment of metals to improve wear characteristics is a relatively new engineering field. Till date, little has been reported on the basic mechanisms of the treating commonly used tool steels and parts.

The vary-cold method unlike the surface coating, is a one-time permanent treatment that affects the material throughout. Re-sharpening or redressing of worn tools does not destroy the effect of treatment. Tool may be new, or used, sharp, and dull, prior to treatment. Every industry have some application for the use of cryogenic metal treatment- to increase metal and part life, to decrease downtime and to change out and regrinding, and to reduce costly tool inventory. 2. 2 A Proposal for the Calculation of Wear: A Journal by John M.

Thompson, PhD, Consulting Engineer and Mary Kathy Thompson, Mechanical Engineering Dept, MIT. Finite element analysis usually neglects the contributions of wear and the changes in the surface due to wear. However, wear may be important in any structure subjected to repeated loadings and may be critical for certain terminological applications including the prediction of the leaning potential of surfaces. In this paper, a procedure is proposed whereby the effects of wear may be calculated and included in the overall analysis of the structure.

The Orchard equation is used as the basis for calculating wear strain which 5 is used to modify the elastic strain in an element in an explicit manner. Extensions of the theory are also proposed and an example using explicit creep for the wear adjustments is included. Effects of cryogenic treatment on wear behavior of DO tool steel In this paper, the effects of cryogenic treatment on the wear behavior of DO tool steel were studied. For this purpose, two temperatures were used: -63 co as shallow cryogenic temperature and -185 co as deep cryogenic temperature.

The effects of cryogenic temperature (Shallow and deep), cryogenic time (kept at cryogenic temperature for 20 and 40 h) and stabilization (kept at room temperature for 1 week) on the wear behavior of DO tool steel were studied. Wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disk wear tester to which two different loads (120 and 180 N) and three different velocities (0. 05, 0. 1 and 0. 2 m/s) were applied. The findings showed that the cryogenic treatment decreases he retained austenite and hence improves the wear resistance and hardness.

Due to more homogeneity carbide distribution as well as the elimination of the retained austenite, the deep cryogenic treatment demonstrated more improvement in wear resistance and hardness compared with the shallow cryogenic treatment. By increasing the keeping time at cryogenic temperatures, more retained austenite was transformed into martinets; thus, the wear resistance was improved and further hardness were observed. By keeping the samples for a period of 1 week at room temperature after quenching (stabilization), more retained austenite was ransomed into martinets and higher wear resistance and higher hardness were achieved.