Atmosphere Structure & Temperature

What produces a variety of weather?
The combination of Earth’s motion and energy from the sun produce a variety of weather
What is climate based on?
Climate is based on observation of weather that have been collected over many years
What is air a mixture of?
Air is a mixture of different gases and particles, each with its own physical properties
What two gases make up 99 percent of dry air?
Nitrogen and oxygen
What gas plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide
What is the source of all clouds and precipitation?
Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation
What are some particles that remain suspended for long periods of time?
Sea salts from breaking waves, fine soil blown into air, smoke and soot from fires, pollen and microorganisms lifted by the wind, and ash and dust from volcanic eruptions
When do oxygen atoms split into single atoms of oxygen?
When they absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted from the sun
What does ozone absorb?
Harmful UV radiation from the sun
What accounts for nearly half the primary pollutants by weight?
Emissions from transportation vehicles
What secondary pollutants?
They are not emitted directly into air, they form in the atmosphere when reactions take place among primary pollutants and other substance
What are photochemical reactions?
Reaction triggered by strong sunlight
What is atmospheric pressure? is simply the weight of the air above.
Atmospheric pressure is simply the weight of the air above
How many layers is the atmosphere divided into?
4
In what layer do most weather phenomena occur?
Troposphere
Where does most energy that drives weather and climate come from?
Sun
What creates winds and dives the ocean’s currents?
It’s the unequal heating of Earth that creates winds and drives the ocean currents. These movements transport heat from the tropics toward the poles in an attempt to balance energy differences. The results of these processes are the phenomena we call weather
What is rotation?
The spinning of Earth about its axis
What is revolution?
The movement of Earth in its orbit around the sun
What are the degrees the Earth is tilted?
23.5 degrees
What is length of daylight determined by?
It is determined by Earth’s position in orbit
What are the three mechanisms for energy transfer?
Conduction, convection and radiation
What can radiant energy travel through?
Radiant energy travel through the vacuum of space
Do hot or cold objects radiate more energy?
Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do
What is reflection?
It occurs when light bounces off an object
Does land or water heat to higher temperature faster?
Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperature than water.
What is a coast called in which blow from the ocean onto the shore?
Windward coast
What is albedo?
Is the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by any surface
What does the extent of cloud cover influence?
By reducing the amount of incoming solar radiation, the maximum temperatures on a cloud-covered day will be lower than on a day when the clouds are absent and the sky is clear
What type of lines connects points of the same temperature?
Isotherms