APES test chapter

Sedimentary

 

 

sand stone or limestone (made up of sand)
metamorphic rock
slate, marble, gneiss, and quartzite
magma
molten rock
Igneous
granite, pumice, and basalt
sedimentary rock
stand stone and limestone.
the parent material rock
Any type of rock can be weathered
Basalt
dark black
Crystallization
intrusive in earth
Lithofication
how sedimentary rock gets formed? Conversion to rock.
Cementation
Called conglomerate when big particles of rock are mixed in with smaller cement rocks.
Intrusive igneous rock
occurs at the surface
Drainage basin
The process of the ocean water on the rain falls on the landscape and then create rivers and others
exfoliation
no mineral difference in the rock, the rock is just broken down. Frost wedging could occur with temperatures.
Chemical Weather
chemical weathering process. Acid rain can alter the limestone calcuiumcarbonic chemical.
Oxidation
Chemical weathering. Iron in rocks, can change the color of the rocks
Hydrolysis
chemical weathering of aluminum and granite (high ciliate chemicals
Bioturbation
When a tree falls from the rock weathering
Eluvial horizon
a layer of dissolved minerals as plant and animal material is starting to break down
Lichen
can relase chemicals that can start to break down the rock.
Lithosphere
Is rock that contains minerals and soil, which goes through the rock cycle
The layers of soil are composed of these two componinents..
Humus and organic matter
Humas in soil is found on the ____layer, which includes _____and _____
Upper, which includes litter and topsoil
Organic matter is found in the ____layers of soil, and consists of ____and_____.
Lower layers, and consists of subsoil and parent material.
Minerals can increase their supply by:
Finding new supplies improved by improved technology, higher market prices.
Minerals are in limited supply through three main areas
Geology (very little supply), economics (too pricey), and environmental impact (too risky).
Minerals found in this type of rock are unstable.
Manganese, cobalt, platinum, and chromium
Erosion in soil can lead to three major environmental impacts.
loss of soil nutrient, water pollution, and flooding.
Eriosion by wind and water can come ____ or ____.
Naturally or by human process.
Natural erosion of wind and water can come from:
Fire or excessive rain
Erosion by human process comes from four main problems:
Farming, overgrazing, excessive irrigation, and construction.
What can be used for organic fertlizing?
Compost from animal manure, or compost
Low/high grade ore
Rock that contains little or high amounts of desired minerals
Magma
Molten rock below the earth’s surface.
Mountain Top removal
The process of removing mountain tops to expose coal underneath the mountain (often down with explosives).
Nanotechnology
Using elements to built material from the bottom up.
Overburden
A layer of soil and rock that overlies mineral deposits
tsunami
When waves in the ocean are created from the eruption of the ocean floor.
Volcanoe
A vent in the earths surface where magma, liquid lava, and gases are released into the environment.
Core
the inner most part of the earth, the inner layer is solid and a molten outer hot layer is the the outer core
The earth is made up of these three componients
core mantle and crust
Asthenosphere
part of the mantle that makes pliable rock.