APES Laws, Factoids and Case Studies

The Earth
The largest earthquake record in the US occured in Prince William Sound (Exxon Valdez spill) in 1964. It measured 9.2 on richter scale
The Earth
The number one state for the quantity of earthquakes is Alaska followed by California and Hawaii
The Earth
The earthquake that casued the most deaths, 830,000, occurred in shansi China in 1556. In the US the earthquake that caused the most deaths was in San Francico in 1906, about 3000
The Earth
Mount Saint Helens: Located in Washington State, it erupted in 1980. The earthquake removed trees, increased soil erosion, destoryed wildlife, and polluted the air with gases and ash. Other effects included mudflows, melting of glacial ice and snow, and clogged rivers that caused flooding. Fifty-seven people were killed
The Earth
Mount Pinatubo: Mount Pinatubo is part of a chain of composit volcanoes on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo eruted for 9 hours, disgorged a cubi mile of volcani debris, and vented 18 million metric tons of sulfur dixode into the atmosphere which encircled earth in three weeks after reaching the startosphere. This was the alrgest sulfur dioxide cloud ever detected to date. The sulfate aerosols formeds in the stratosphere increased reflection of solar radiation and within 3 years caused over a 2 F overal cooling of Earth
The Earth
Soil on cultivated land in the US is eroding sixteen times faster than it can form
The Earth
Soil in the Great Plains has lost one-third of its topsoil
The Earth
15% of all land on Earth (mostly Africa and Asia) is no longer available to grow crops due to overgrazing (35%) deforestation (30%) and unsustainable farming (28%)
The Earth
40% of all land on Earth used for agriculutre is seriously degraded due to erosion, salinization, and waterlogging
The Earth
one inch o ftopsoil can take up to 1000 years to form
The Earth
Due to extensive soil erosion in the US, more soil is lost each year than during the 1930s dust bowl
The Earth
In 1850, soil in the praire states average 14 inches of topsoil. Today it is 7.
The Earth
More than half of the fertilizer used today is required to replace organic nutrients lost thorugh soil erosion
The Earth
Dust Bowl: The Dust bBowl occurred during the 1930s in Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas. It was caused by polowing the prairies and resulted in the loss of natural grasses that rooted the soil. Dorurght and winds that occurred blew most of the topsoil away, casuing people to leave the area.
The Earth
1935 Soil Erosion Act: Established the Soil Conservation Service. Mandates the protections of the nation’s soil reserves. deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil surveys, and does research on soil salinity. Provides computer databases for scientific research.
Global Water Resources and Use
4000 gallons of water produces 1 kilowatt-hour of hydrooelectric power
Global Water Resources and Use
To produce 1 gallon of milk, dairy cow must drink 4 gallons of water. It takes 8 gallons of water to grow a tomato.
Global Water Resources and Use
300 million gallons of water are used to produce one day of newsprint in the US
Global Water Resources and Use
In the US, one penny buys about 160 glasses of water
Global Water Resources and Use
San Joaquin Valley: Groundwater-related subsidence is the sinking of land resulting from groundwater extraction. land subsidence occurs when large amounts of ground water have been withdrawn from certain types of rocks, such as fine-grained sediments. The rock compacts beczause the water is partly responsible for holding the ground up. When the water is withdrawns, the rocks fall in on themselves. The desert areas of hte world are requiring more an dmore water for growing poppulaitons and agriculture. In the San Joaquin Valley of the US, groundwater pupoing for crops has gone on for generations and has resulted in the enitre valley sinking up to thirty feet
Global Water Resources and Use
Mexico City: A citty of 22 million people, Mexico City is almost entirely dependent on exploiting groundwater ofor its needs. the water table in Mexico city is dropping almost six feet per year. Such a dramatic change in land elevation casues massive impacts on buildings and infrastrucutre, such as cracking and tilting.
Groundwater is considered to be on eo fhte last Free resources as anybodywho can afford to drill can draw up water according to their ability to pup. htus, the extraction of groundwater becomes a Tragedy of the Commons, with high economic externalities
Global Water Resources and Use
Water Resources Planning Act (1965)Provided for plans to ormulate and evalutate water and related land resource projects and to maintain a continuing assessment of the adequacy o fwater supplies in the US
Global Water Resources and Use
Coastal Zone Management Act 1972: Provided funds of state planning and management of coastal areas
Global Water Resources and Use
Clean water Act (1972 and 1987): sets objectives for restoring and maintaining the chemcial, physcial, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Regulates discharge of pollutants and requires federal agencies to avoid addverse impacts frorm modification or destruction of navigable streams and associated tributaties, wetalnds, or other waters
Global Water Resources and Use
Safe Drinking Water Act 1974: Established to protect the qulity of drinking water in the US. This law focueses on ground or underground sources of water
Global Water Resources and Use
Water Resources developemnt Act 1986: Established and maintains dam saftey progams
Global Water Resources and Use
National Estuary Program 1987: Designed to identify nationally significant estuaries and to restore and protect them
Populations
Between 39% AND 50% of Earth’s surface has been ocnverted for either agriculutral or urban purposes
Populations
carbon dioxide condcentrations have increased 30% due to human activiity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation
Populations
More than 50% of all easily accessible freshwater resources are utiliaed by humans
Populations
More than 50%of all nitrogen fixation is caused by human activity. This includes the use of fertilzers, raising nitrogen-fixing crops, and releasing nitrogen pollutants into the nenvironent though the combustion of fossil fuels.
Populations
Humans have disrupted and introduced more than 25% of all plant speciies into nonative continental areas. in some areas, especially islands, this number is greater than 50%
Populations
Conference on Population and Development, cairo (1994): The plan calls for imporved helahtcare and family planning services for women, children, and families thorughtout the world. it also emphasizes the importance of educaiton for girls as a factor in the shift to smaller families
Land and Water Use
Golden rice is produced by splicing three foreign genes, two from dffodil and one from a bacterium, into a varity of rce htat supplies vitamin A to populations that frequently suffer from vitamin A deficiancy
Land and Water Use
Texas has lost approximately 15% of it irrigable land due to aquifer depletion
Land and Water Use
That 122 fish species in the western US are endangerd or thretened is due to changes in water level, saliniztion, or silting caused by irrigation
Land and Water Use
The Aral Sea has decreased 75% in volume and its salinity has increased 30% due to demand for irrigation of cotton
Land and Water Use
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil-dwelling bacterium that also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various type s of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. Proteins produced by Bt are used as specific insecticieds. It works by secreting one or more toxin s after being ingested by an insect. the toxins are often specific to a family of insects, and because of their specifiicty, these pesticides are regared as environmentally friendly. Advantages ofusing Bt include:
the level oof toxin can be very high, thus delivering sufficient dosage to the pest
Itis contained within the plant system; therfore only those insects that fee on dthe plant perish
it replaces the use of synthetic pesticides int he environment
A possible drawback to Bt may be that constant exposure to a toxin creates evolutionary pressure for pests resistant to that toxin
Land and Water Use
Federal Insecticide, Fungicde and Rodenticide Control Act 1947: regulates the manufacture and use of pesticides. Pesticides must be registered and apporved. Lables requrie directions for use and disposal
Land and Water Use
Federal Environmental Pesticides Control Act 1972: Requires registration of all pesticides in US commerce
Land and Water Use
Food Quality Protection Act 1996: Emphasizes the protection of infants and children in reference to pesticide residue in food
Land and Water Use
Each year 2.5 million tons of 600 different types of pesticides are used for agricultural purposes
Land and Water Use
crop loses due to pests in 1990 were abut the same, 37%, as in 1945
Land and Water Use
Healthy Forest Initiative 2003: Allows timber companies to cut down economicallyvaluable trees in most national forests for 10 years. Timber companies in return must clear out small, more fire-prone trees and underbrush. Law may have consequencys of increaseing fires by accumulation of slash and increasing the number of fire-prone, younger trees.