APES Final

commercial energy sources increases
as countries have become more developed, demand for
China, US, Russia, India
countries with largest supplies of coal
environmental costs associated with use of coal
  • particulates that are released into atmosphere when coal is burned
  • degradation to land due to mining techniques
  • trace metals found in coal
  • transportation of coal from mine to power plant

gasoline for transportation
primary use of petroleum products
environmental costs associated with natural gas
  • pipelines built through environmentally sensitive areas
  • release of methane into atmosphere
  • groundwater contamination
  • degradation of land due to drilling techniques

environmental costs associated with CTL, liquified coal
  • large demad for water
  • large demand for energy needed to process coal
  • land degradation in US
  • trace metals released during combustion of CTL

disadvantages of using nuclear energy
  • radioactive waste disposal
  • reactor accidents
  • possibility of using radioactive fues as weapons
  • mining of uranium

premis of nuclear power plant
to use uranium pellets in fuel rods to generate heat while using control rods to prevent meltdown
thyroid cancer
public health issue related to use of nuclear energy
present held idea of what best to do with radioactive waste from nuclear power plants
storing waste in geologically stable site away from human habitation
straw, animal dung, charcoal, wood
classified as biomass
wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric
nondepletable energy resources
potentially renewable
energy sources that can be regenerated easily, such as biomass
potential deforestation and potenetial soil erosion
problems associated with use of trees for biomass
need for a suitable site
one of biggest limitations to wide scale sue of geothermal energy
biomass
form of energy production that can potentially compete with food sources for community
Denmark
country with highest % of electricity from wind power
fuel to travel to turbine to maintain equipment
only fossil fuel input required for generation of electricity after wind turbines are installed
hydrogen and oxygen
combined in working of fuel cells to produce water and electricity
lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, anthracite
order of grades of coal from lowest energy content to highest energy content
US, India, China
countries currently producing largest amounts of coal
  • resources are relatively easy to exploit
  • needs little refining
  • easily transported
  • plentiful 

reasons coal is so widely used
Saudi Arabia, Russia, US
major petroleum producing countries
.3%
if ANWR yields projected peak amount of approximately 330million gallons of oil/year and the US uses roughly 110billion gallons of oil/year, what % of oil used would be provided by the ANWR?
its fissionability
reason Uranium-235 is considered ideal for nuclear reactions
Chernobyl, Ukraine
most damaging nuclear power plant accident
Australia, US, Canada
countries with largest commercial uranium mining operations
low-radioactive waste
  • contaminated clothing
  • tools used in plant maintenance
  • rags used to clean water from reaction
  • contaminated protective gear warn by workers 

1/16
sample of Uranium-235 has a half life of 700 million years, what fraction of parent material will remain after 2800 million years
advantages from harnessing energy derived from nuclear fission
  • immense amount of heat generated
  • minute source of raw material required for reaction
  • no greenhouse gases emitted during energy production
  • relatively small amounts of radioactive waste 

any order
order in which rock cycle operates
  • granite-feldspar, mica, quartz
  • basaltic-high concentrations of magnesium, iron, and calcium 

correct combination of igneous rock type and composition
sedimentary rock
fossils found from plants and animals found here
  • by sediments deposited on ocean floor, in stream, or on lake bottom
  • as result of compression by overlying sediments 

sedimentary rock formed by
metmorphic rock
  • have been subjected to high heat and pressure
  • include marble and slate 

difference between weathering and erosion
weathering refers to breakdown of rock; erosion refers to removal of rock from landscape
both physical and chemical weathering
caused by plant roots
  • sulfur dioxide and water vapor combine to create sulfuric acid
  • sulfur and oxygen combine to create sulfur dioxide 

chemical reactions involved in creation of acid rain
wind, water, gravity, burrowing animals
causes of erosion
parent material has high calcium carbonate content
when soil is fertile
hybrid vehicles
has potential to use half as much gasoline as internal combustion cars
  • pumping acids into deep boreholes to disolve surrounding rock
  • ground disturbance which enables air and water to react with other minerals in rock 
  • fragmentation of natural habitats
  • acid mining drainage flowing over land

environmental trade-offs of hybrid electric cars
all of crust
included in lithosphere
crust
layer of soil that surface of earth is on top of
radioactive decay
results in high temperature at center of earth
magma rises
what happens at hot spot
rock formations in sequences that match on opposite sides of Atlantic
Alfred Wegener’s evidence for claiming that continents have not always been positioned where they are today
Earth’s lithosphere is divided into plates, which move
theory of plate tectonics

subduction, divergence, convergence, seafloor spreading 

volcanoes formed at or near plate boundaries where this happens
nuclear power plant programmed to shut down if ground movements above certain threshold occur
nuclear power plants in seismically active areas
33%
% of worldwide pesticide use US accounts for
target species has begun to evolve resistance
after many years of applying selective pesticide provironex, farmer notices applications seem less effective because ?
nonpersistent insecticide
substance that kills invertebrates that feed on crops and breaks down relatively rapidly
genetic engineering
changing genetic structure of agricultural products to improve traits
Bt; Bacillus thuringiensis
some scientists want to genetically modify crops; possible strategy is insertion of __ gene from __
crop rotation, intercropping, planting herbicide resistant crops, habitat creation for pest predators
techniques used by integrated pest management (IPM)
high-input industrial farming is not feasible because farmers lack financial resources
why IPM especially successful in developing countries
OFPA
regulates organic farming in US
consumers must be willing to pay higher cost associated with organic products
in order for organic farmers to make profit
  • introduction of new allergens into food supply
  • loss of genetic biodiversity in food crops 

warned by critics of using genetically modified organisms as food crops
neurotoxins
  • chemicals highly effective due to ability to impair nerve transmission of insects
  • heavy metals (mercury and lead) that pose threat to individuals when found in environment 

  • damaging genetic material of cell
  • interfering with normal metabolic processes of cell 

ways carcinogens cause damage to cells
asbestos, formaldehyde, chemicals found in tobacco, radon
examples of carcinogens
thalidomide
teratogen used in 1950s-1960s to treat morning sickness
  • DDT
  • wastewater from animal-rearing facilities
  • municipal wastewater
  • Atrazine 

sources of endocrine disruptors in environment
phthalates
compound in plasted classified as endocrine disruptors
dose-response, chronic, retrospective
studies conducted by scientists to assess risk of chemicals
4.6 billion
how old Earth approximately is
.02 km
European continent and North America are moving away from each other at rate of 36mm/year. most closesly approximate how much further apart continents were in 2010 than when Columbus crossed Atlantic in 1492
8,300,000 years
rare rock formation is found 300 km from matching formation. continent on which it is found is part of plate that’s moving at rate of 36mm/year. most closely approximate how many years ago matching rocks were separated
1000
earthquake that measures 8.0 on Richter Scale is __ times stronger than earthquake that measures 5.0
  • magnitude on Richter Scale
  • proximity of epicenter to densely populated areas
  • quality of building construction close to earthquake zone 

damage earthquake causes predicted by
possibly, if there are many peope living in area
could earthquake with maginitude of 5.9 on RS be more damaging than a 7.5?
ash from Icelandic volcano
reason air travel across Atlantic was disrupted in spring 2010
mineral
geologist finds substance with unifrom crystalline structure and composition throughout. in lab, determined substance is more than 1 element. IDENTIFY
igneous-liquid magma
correct rock type with mode of origin
more permeable
soils that develop between chemical and physical weathering of rock
chemical weathering creates new substances
difference between chemical and physical weathering
physical weathering
freeze thaw example of
rock weathers more rapidly because there are greater surfaces on which chemicals can work
when surface are of rock is increased
chemical weathering because they produce weak acids
lichens very important in
road building, logging, construction, agriculture
accelerates erosion of soil
  • filter of water and atmospheric chemical compounds
  • habitat for organisms
  • anchor for plants
  • location for recycling of organic matter 

function of soil
soil is richest in humid tropics because of warm temperatures and high rain creating conditions most able to decompose organic matters
effect of temperature and rainfall on soil
sand-;sitl-;clay
order of physical size of sediment particles from largest to smallest
primarily sand
soild drains most rapidly when made of
mix of sand, silt, and clay that promotes water drainage and retention
soil best for growing plants composed of
250,000
each year in US > __ people become ill from household pesticides
piscicide
toxic chemical that kills fish
DDT
example of persistent pesticide
persistent insecticide
substance that kills invertebrates that feed on crops that remains in environment for long time
FFDCA
agency that sets pesticide tolerance levels
EPA
agency that sets tolerance level specifying amount of toxic pesticide residue that can legally remain on crop when consumer eats it
neurotoxins impair nervous system
correct about toxins
  • establish “No Idling” zones, require enhanced auto inspections
  • retrofit gasoline pumps with sleeves to collect VOCs

practices act to reduce vehicular exhaust in urban areas
  • respiratory disease high above national average
  • limited visibility-haze

large urban areas that have problems associated with high levels of particulate pollution also have
  • NOx emissions
  • open burning
  • sulfur content in fuel
  • emissions from industrial smokestacks 

early air pollution legislation in US to control
  • local businesses capitalize on new “clean” technologies
  • establishment of local manufacturers of “clean” technologies
  • creation of municipal fleet of electric cars and buses
  • population increase in local areas 

possible economic benefits to legislation on air pollution
Pb, SO2, NOx, CO, PM, and tropospheric O3
6 “criteria” air pollutants as specified under Clean Air Act
  • respiratory irritant
  • can adversely affect plant tissues
  • results from combustion of coal and oil
  • corrosive gas 

SO2
  • occurs as NO2 and NO gases
  • occur as products of combustion in atmosphere
  • motor vehicles and fossil fuel combustion primary anthropogenic sources
  • they play role in production of photochemical smog

NOx
tropospheric O3
secondary pollutant involved in photochemical smog
result from transformation of primary pollutants
sulfates considered secondary pollutants because…
ozone
primary component of smog that frequently exists in major metropolitan areas, such as Los Angeles, CA, is known as brown smog
  • comprised aquatic systems
  • lowered pH of lakes
  • erosion of buildings and monuments made of marble
  • erosion of paint on painted surfaces 

problem associated with acid deposition
  • VOC emissions
  • NOx emissions

necessary to limit in order to control tropospheric ozone
  • overall reduction in sulfur emissions in US
  • companies can emit amounts of sulfur proportional to amounts they emitted prior to 1990
  • companies can sell sulfur allowances that they do not use to other companies
  • companies that emit quantities of sulfur above which they have allowances for must pay fine

aspects of sulfur allowances as provided for Acid Rain Program of Clean Air Act include
.8 million tons/year
Clean Skies Initiative proposed SO2 emissions reduction from 11 million tons in 2002 to 4.5 million tons in 2010. what was proposed reduction in emissions, assuming emissions were reduced at constant rate?
  • permitting automobiles to be driven only every other day
  • expanding public transportation networks
  • carpool/high occupancy vehicle lanes on interstates
  • charging user fees to use certain roads at certain times 

in order to reduce amount of ground-level pollutants (VOCs, NOx, CO, troposhpheric O3) municipalities around globe have instituted these
CFCs
class of anthropogenic compounds responsible for breakdown of stratospheric ozone
UV-B and UV-C radiation
protctive layer of oxygen and stratospheric ozone absorb over 99% of incoming…
  • increased incidence of cancer
  • increased incidence of cataracts
  • reduction in photosynthetic activity in plants
  • suppressed immune system

problems associated with thinning ozone layer
Montreal Protocol
agreement that allowed for reduciton, and eventual elimination, of CFC production and use
  • radioactive gas resulting from natural decay of uranium
  • seeps into homes through cracks in foundation or soil
  • effects can be reduced by simply increasing ventilation
  • exists in igneous rock granite all around world 

describe radon-222
CO2, ozone, methane, CFCs
greenhouse gases
increase in global population, which is also becoming increasingly affluent
phenomena major cause fo greenhouse gases
natural gas cogeneration
chief contributor to greenhouse gas emissions as well as increaseing environmental mobility of mercury
infrared light
increase in cogeneration of greenhouse gases in troposphere will lead to decrease in heat radiated back in form of
known as major ozone depleters
class of compounds known as CFCs
CO2
greatest overall contributor to greenhouse effect
methane
greenhouse gas results from natural anaerobic processes typically associated with saturated soil conditions in wetlands
raising livestock is one of largest anthropogenic sources
anthropogenic sources of methane production
coal
fuels would release most CO2 in producing given amount of energy
IPCC
created by UIN to monitor, understand, and estimate global impact of climate change
China
nation responsible for most CO2 emissions on annual basis
termites
excluding wetlands, abundant, non-anthropogenic source of methae in atmosphere is from
wood
for majority of history of US, predominant fuel source has been (figure)
  • its relative ease of extraction
  • its relative ease of transportation
  • use as transportation fuel
  • relatively inexpensive cost 

use of petroleum as fuel rose dramatically due to (figure)
natural gas
drop in use of coal as fule in 1940s corresponds to rise in use of (figure)
  • manufacture of coal-burning power plants
  • high net energy of coal
  • abundance of coal in US
  • relatively inexpensive cost of coal 

rise of use of coal from 1975-2000 can be explained by…
coal, natural gas, petroleum
fossil fuels that pose risks to environment
nuclear fuels, fossil fuels
nonrenewable energy sources
coal, oil, natural gas
conventional fossil fuel energy sources
21,600 MWH
capacity of power plant is 1000 MW and its capacity factor is .9; how much energy in MWH can power plant produce in one day?
coal (highes number=most efficient)
EROEI for number of fuel sources given. which woudl be most efficient? (figure)
planned obsolescence
most significant contributor to modern “throw away society”
  • socioeconomic status
  • geographic location within country
  • time of year 

factor affects amount of MSW generated by individuals
their growing populations and mass production of consumer goods used in developed countries
best explains rise of MSW generated by individuals in developing countries
paper
major component of MSW in US
reduce, reuse, recycle
from most desirable to least desirable, the 3 Rs stand for
  • reduces effects on land from mining
  • reduces effects of leaching in landfills
  • reduces energy required to transport and process mixed ore

environmental benefits of recycling aluminum
plastic bottles can be recycled and used in production of different plastic products
best explains why recycling plastics is example of open-loop recycling
there is not always market for recycled goods
one of greatest problems associated with recycling
leachate can be at high temperature
least likely to be danger associated with leachate from sanitary landfill
  • reduced volume of material ending up in landfill
  • generation of rich organic fertilizer
  • reduction in amount of methane generated in landfills
  • reduced amount of energy needed to transport material to landfill 

environmental benefits of composting
high in clay
best soil to engineer sanitary landfill
proximity of neighbors without resources to mount effective opposition
most ignored factor making landfill construction souce of considerable environmental justice
be used in production of cement blocks and cement flooring
economic benefit of non-toxic fly ask production at waste incinerator is that ash may…
  • cadmium ash
  • environmental justice issues when determining site
  • incomplete burning of all waste in incinerator
  • required hazardous waste treatment of ash 

negative aspects of waste incineration
  • dry cleaner fluid
  • car batteries
  • insecticides
  • jet fuel 

hazardous waste
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

US legislation that:

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  • protects human health and environmental integrity by reducing hazardous waste
  • is designed to track hazardous wast from procution to disposal (cradle to grave)

CERCLA
US legislation imposes tax on targeted industrial facilities and then utilizes those funds to clean up selected abandoned hazardous waste sites
Love Canal
correctly identifies Superfund
  • amount of energy needed to transport material to waste site
  • amount of raw material needed to produce product
  • tipping fees when disposing material
  • toxic aspects of material once it becomes waste 

considered in life-cycle analysis
Integrated Waste Management (IWM)
more holistic approach to handling large amount of waste generated in US, includes number of different strategies, as opposed to conventional landfill or incineration approach is use of…
  • type of pollution preferred
  • amount of tipping fees 

factors considered when determining whether to landfill MSW or incinerate it
  • amount of suitable land available for citing
  • release of methane gas into atmosphere
  • potential for leaching of leachate
  • reliance on fossil fuels for transporting waste 

environmental costs of relying on sanitary landfills for waste handling
clay liner
component of landfill that impeads water flow and can trap metal ions
methane
component of landfill that is extracted and either used as fuel or burned off