APES chapter 7

Coral Reefs
Formation produced by massive colonies containing billions of tiny coral animals, called polyps, that secrete a stony substance around themselves for protection. When the corals die, their enpty outer sketletons form layers and cause the reef to grow. They are found in the coastal zones of warm tropical and subtropical oceans.
Coral polyps
They slowly build reefs by secreting a protective crust of limestone around their soft bodies
Coral bleaching…
occurs when a coral becomes stressed and expel most of its colorful algae
Phytoplankton
Small, drifting plants, mostly algae and bacteria, found in aquatic ecosystems.
Zooplankton
Animal plankton. Small floating herbivores that feed on plant plankton.
Nekton
Strongly swimming organisms found in aquatic systems.
Benthos
Bottom-dwelling organisms
Decomposers

Organism that digests parts of dead organisms and cast off frgagments and wastes of living organisms by breaking down the complex organic molecules in those materials into simpler inorganic compounds and then absorbing the soluble nutrients. Producers return most of these chemicals to the soil and water for reuse. Decomposers consist of various bacteria and fungi.

Euphotic zone

Lighted upper zone where photosynthesis occurs mostly by phytoplankton, nutrient levels are low and levels of dissolved oxygen are high. (large fast, moving predatory fish such as swordfish, sharks, and bluedin tuna populate this zone.)

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Bathyal zone
Dimly lit middle zone that does not contain photosynthesizing producers because of a lack of sunlight. (various types of zooplankton and smaller fish, many of which migrate to feed on the surface at night, populate this zone.)
Abyssal zone
Dark lower zone that is very cold, has little dissolved oxygen and has enough nutrients on the ocean floor to support about 98% of species living in the ocean.
Coastal zone
Warm, nutrient-rich, shallow part of the ocean that extends from the high-tide mark on land to the edge of a shelflike extension of continental land masses (continental shelf)
Estuaries

Partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a  river where its fresh water, carrying fertuke silt and runoff from the land, mixes with salty sea water

Coastal wetlands
Land along a coastline, extending inland from an estuary, that is covered with salt water all or part of the year.
Mangroves (swamps)
swamps found on the coastlines in warm tropical climates. They are dominated by mangrove trees, any of about 55 species of trees and shrubbs that can live partly submerged in the salty environment of coastal swamps.
Intertidal zone
Area of shoreline between low and high tides.
Rocky shores…
Sandy shores…
Barrier island
Long, thin, low offshore islands of sediment that generally run parallel to the shore along some coasts
Open sea
Part of an ocean that is beyond the continental shelf
Freshwater life zone
Aquatic systems where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less that 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes. (ex. standing bodies of fresh water sudh as lakes, ponds, and inland wetlands and flowing systems such as streams and rivers) 
lake
large natural body of standing fresh water formed when watre from precipitation, land runoff, or groundwater flow fills a depression in the earth created glaciation, earth movement, volcanic activity, or a giant meteorite.
Littoral zone
Consists of the shallow sunlit waters near the shore to the depth at which rooted plants stop growing
Limnetic zone
the open, sunlit water surface layer away from the shore that extends to the depth penetrated by sunlight. As the main photosynthetic body of the lake, it produces the food and oxygen that support most of the lake’s consumers.
Profundal zone
the deep, open water where it is too dark for photosynthesiss.
Benthic zone
at the bottom of the lake. It is inhabited mostly by organisms that tolerate cool temperature and low oxygen levels.
Oligotrophic lake
Lake with a low supply of plant nutrients
Eutrophic lake
Lake with a large or excessive supply of plant nutrients, mostly nitrates and phosphates.
Cultural eutrophication
Overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.
Epilimnion
an upper layer of warm water with high levels of dissolved oxygen.
Thermocline
where the water temperature changes rapidly with depth and with moderate levels of dissolved oxygen
Hypolimnion
a lower layer of colder, dense water, usually with a lower concentration of dissolved oxygen because it is not exposed to the atmosphere. During the summer the thermociline acts as a barrier preventing the transfer of nutrients and dissolved oxygen between the epilimnion and hypolimnion.

Surface water

precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration.
Runoff water
fresh water from precipitation and melting ice that flows on the earth’s surface into nearby streams, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs.
Watershed
land aread that delivers water, sediment and dissolves substances via small streams to a major stream.
Source zone
headwater or mountain highand streams of cold, clear water rush over waterfals and rapids.

Transition zone

the headwater streams merge to form wider, deeper streams that flow down gentler slopes with fewer obstacles.
Floodplain zone
streams join into wider and deeper rivers that meander across broad, flat valleys.
Prairie Pothole
depressions carves out by glaciers
Swamp
dominated by trees and shrubs?
Marsh
few trees??
Inland wetlands
lands covered with fresh water all or part of the time and located away from coastal areas.
Seasonal inland wetlands
underwater or soggy for only a short time each year