APES Chapter 17 and 18 Study Guide

London’s Air Pollution
Poor air conditions since the 13th century, when they used to burn mass amounts of coal. More recently they were one of the first countries to experience the industrial revolution and the amounts of pollution that it takes.
Atmosphere
The thin layer of gases that surround the Earth.
Atmospheric Make-Up

78% Nitrogen

21% Oxygen

1% Argor and other minute gases.;

Variable Gases vs Permanent Gases
Variable gases have concentrations that alter from time to time; where as permanent gases’ concentrations remain constant. 
Troposphere
The bottommost layer of the atmosphere that provides the air we need to live.
Stratosphere
Similar composition as the tropospher (air we need to live), but more dry and less dense. 
Tropopause
A boundry that lies at the top of the troposphere in which the tempurature declines and acts like a transitional zone between the troposphere and the stratosphere. 
Ozone Layer
Decreased the amount of UV radiation that falls to Earth’s surface. Majority of it lies in the stratosphere.;
Mesosphere
Air pressure is extemely low, tempurature decreases with height.
Thermosphere
Uppermost layer of the atmosphere, with the lowest air pressure, temperature, and altitude.;
Atmospheric Pressure
Measures the force per unit area produced by a column of air. Decreases with altitude, because the higher the altitude the fewer molecules are being pulled down by gravity.;
Relative Humidity;
The ratio of water vapor a given volume of air contains to the maximum amount it could contain at a given temperature.;
Reasons for Season Change
Seasons change due to the varying angles the the suns beams hit the Earth throughout different parts of the year. This is because Earth spins on an axis.;
Convective Circulation
This circulation occurs when there is warm air closer to the ground so it rises up toward colder air and colder air falls toward the ground. This creats a cycle of warm air rising and cool air falling.
Weather
Temporarily the conditions going on.
Climate
The more permanent average of the tempurature.
Front
A boundry between two varying air masses.
Warm Front
When the warm air mass dominate the colder one causing dry weather.
Cold Front
When the cold air mass dominates the warm one causing clouds and storms.;
High Pressure System
When there is an air mass with high pressure so the air moves away from the high pressured center to balance out and form equilibrium.
Low Pressure System
When air flows into a low pressure area to form equilibrium.;
Themal Inversion
When hot air (pollution) gets trapped under cold air.
Inversion Layer
The hot layer between the cold and hot zones during thermal inversion.;
Hadley, Ferel, Polar Cells

Hadley- convective cells near the equator

Ferel- between the 0 degree and 30 degree line

Polar- between the 30 and 60 degree lines

Coriolis Effect
Due to the fact that the Earth is constantly spinning wind paterns get messed up and do not travel straight, but at curved angles.
Problems with Dust Storms
Cause desertification and unsustainable farming.
Problems with Volcanoes
Release sulfur, when sulfur mixes with water and oxygen it produces aerosols which unnaturally cool the earth.;
;Problems with Fires
Releases harmful soot and gases. Recently many are not even natural, but have been started by humans.;
Point Polution
Outdoor polution that can be pinned down to one point, factory.;
Nonpoint Pollution
Outdoor pollution that cannont be pinned down to one place, but is a result of multiple things, cars.;
Air Pollution Control Act of 1955
first air protection law to be passed
Clean Air Act of 1963
Funded research into pollution control and encouraged emisiions standards for auto mobiles and point source polution
Clean Air Act of 1970
Strict laws on air quality, formed limits for car emissions. Allowed people to be sued for damaging the air. First big law to come into play.;
Clean Air Act of 1990
Furthered the Act of 1970. Stricter regulation.;
Criteria Air Polutants
Pollutants that harm human health. (CO, SO2, NO2, O3, Pb, Particulate Matter)
Carbon Monoxide CO
colorless odor less gas that kills. come from cars. 78% of car emmissions are CO
Sulfur Dioxide SO2
pungent odor but colorless, comes from coal that is used to produce electricity.;
Nitrogen Dioxide NO2
highly reactive and contributes to smog/acid precipitation. comes from motor vechicles.;
Tropospheric Ozone
stratospheric ozone is good for humans but tropospheric is not, it is produced by smog and lies in the tropospheric zone. it is a secondary polutant because it is not dangerous until exposed to the suns rays.;
Lead Pb
Enters the atmosphere as particulate matter. can enter the blood stream and cause nervous system malfunction.;
Particulate Matter
solid and liquid particles. primary polutants such as dust and soot. but also secondary pollutants such as sulfates and nitrites. ranges greatly.;
VOC’s
volatile organic compounds. carbon containing chemicals used in and emitted by engines but can also be in many house hold consuer items. 
Toxic Air Pollutants
can cause cancer, defects, and other problems.some are natural and others are chemically produced. 
Industrial Smog
aka gray air smog. when coal is burned. less common today. 
Photochemical Smog
aka brown air smog. formed through chemical reactions. founds in hot windless cities. 
Montreal Protocol
Meeting in canada with a bunch of countries saying they will stop/cut back on emissions. US doesnt sign..-______-
Acid Deposition
when acid rain or other acids fall the earths surface eroding it. 
Indoor Air Polution 
concentration of the air pollution is higher, health threats are higher than outdoor.