APES Chapter 1

Developed Countries
country that is highly industrialized and has high per capita GDP
Developing Countries
country that has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita DGP
Globalization
broad process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world
Sustainability
ability of earth’s various systems, including human and cultural systems and economics, to survive and adapt to the changing environmental conditions indefinitely
Natural Capital
natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support our economies
Rule of 70
doubling time (in years) = 70/(percentage growth rate)
Economic Growth
increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services; an increase in gross domestic product (GDP)
Economic Development
improvement of human living standards by economic growth
Perpetual Resources
essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale because it is renewed continuously; ex. solar energy
Renewable Resources
resource that can be replenished rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is replaced
Nonrenewable Resources
resource that exists in fixed amounts (stock) in the earth’s crust and has potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years
Sustainable Yield
highest rate at which a potentially renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
Anthropogenic
of or relating to the study of the origins and development of human beings
Environmental Degradation
depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, etc that is used faster than it is naturally replenished
Per Capita
annual gross domestic product (GDP) of a country divided by its total population at the midyear
Point Source Pollution
single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment (smokestack of a power plant, chimney house)
Nonpoint Source Pollution
large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area
Ecological Footprint
amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply a population with the renewable resources it uses and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resouce use; measures the average environmental impact of population in different countries and areas
Tragedy of the Commons
depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people have free and unmanaged access
Aldo Leopold
influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness preservation